LIST OF INFORMATION FOR

CARRIAGE AND WAGON AXLES FOR HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES

Compiled by the Carriage Museum of America

Edited by Don Peloubet. Astragal Press, Mendham, New Jersey, 2002.

HUB

Stewart, W. H. Tools For Ascertaining Length and Pitch Of Axles. Hub June 1872 page Note: Illustration and description of apparatus for ascertaining length and pitch of axles. Mr. Stewart is from Orion, Wisconsin.

Mosier, J. L. H. Why Are Axles Gathered? Hub August 1872 page Note: Mr. Mosier was foreman blacksmith with Brewster & Co., New York, NY. "Gathering the axle is to keep the wheel from running off, it is said that the object aimed at is to cause the wheels to run on purely parallel lines, which position would not cause either a running off or running on of the wheel."

Matthew, J. Setting Axles. Hub October 1872 page Note: Mr. Matthew is from Olive, New York. Writes about dish, heavy and light wheels, length of hub, standing of the wheel. "My opinion is, that the wheels, as I have mentioned, should stand so as to run straight ahead without being forced by the axle-arm to turn to the right or left."

Mosier, J. L. H. Cold Shuts In Axles. Hub January 1873 page Note: Mr. Mosier, foreman, blacksmith with Brewster & Co., New York, New York writes about fusing two pieces of metal together and foreign substances such as slag, dirt, or a small particle of sulphur causing an improper weld. Also writes about the fusing of two different pieces metal together.

Steel vs. Iron Axles. Hub February 1873 page Note: Writes about the great diversity of opinions, giving the different merits.

Remarks On Axle-Setting. Hub July 1874 page Note: "The fact that a perpendicular spoke of wood will support the greatest weight acting in a vertical direction is indisputable, and an axle-arm set so that each under-spoke shall stand perpendicular as the wheel revolves must necessarily place the wheel in a better position to bear the amount of strain put upon it. This setting to give a plumb stroke is what is technically termed "the hang of the axle." Article reprinted from the Saddler's Gazette.

D. Arthur Brown & Co., Hub October 1874 page Note: Half page advertisement for Axle Works of D. Arthur Brown & Co., Fisherville, New Hampshire.

Mosier, J. L. H. Axles. Hub May 1875 page Note: Mr. Mosier was foreman, blacksmith with Brewster & Co., New York, New York. In response to Henry Richardson of England, Mr. Mosier writes about the different axles in America, and the use of Collinge and Mail axle and merits of different kinds.

Anchor Brand Axles. Hub July 1875 page Note: Third page advertisement for Sheldon & Co., Auburn, New York. Illustration of Collinge Axles. A80

Anchor Brand Axles. Hub July 1875 page Note: Third page advertisement for Sheldon & Co., Auburn, New York. Illustration of Collinge Axles. A114

Smith, Alfred E. First-class Carriage Axles. Hub September 1875 page Note: Quarter of a page advertisement for Alfred E. Smith, Bronxvlle, Westchester County, New York. Illustrated is the new patent "Paragon" axle.

Smith, Alfred E. First-class Carriage Axles. Hub October 1875 page Note: Third of page advertisement for Alfred E. Smith, Bronxville, Westchester County, New York, axles. "Warranted-Axles only, with solid Case-Hardened Malleable Iron or Compositon Boxes." Two illustrations of axles.

Nimson Forge and Axle Co. Hub September 1875 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Nimson Forge and Axle Co., Allentown, Pennsylvania. Illustration of axle spindle.

Welding Steel Axles. Hub November 1875 page 257. Note: Illustration with description of welding two overlapped scarfed ends together without upsetting.

Fort Plain Spring and Axle Works. Hub December 1875 page Note: Quarter page advertisement, illustration of the Fort Plain Spring and Axle Works, Clark, Smith & Co., Fort Plain, New York, factory.

Raw-hide Axle Washers. Hub December 1875 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Darrow Manufacturing Company, Bristol, Connecticut and their patented July 28, 1868 raw-hide axle washer.

Nothing Like Leather. Hub December 1875 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for J. R. Read, Providence, Rhode Island and the Sole Leather Champion Washer. Illustration is decorative art work.

Windance, F. Welding Steel Axles. Hub December 1875 page 293. Note: Illustration and description of to butt ends welded together that have been upset.

Fox, J. B. Welding Steel. Hub June 1876 page 91. Note: Mr. Fox is from South Bend, Indiana and formerly worked for Coan &Ten Broeke, Chicago. Fitting the axle to the bed, heating the axle, and welding the axle. Detailed description with illustrations.

Save Your Horses! Hub June 1876 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Synovial Axle Lubricator, New York, New York "Very Best and most Economical." Illustrated with a horse wearing a saddle and bridle.

Snyovial Axle-Lubricator. Hub June 1876 page Note: Description of axle lubricator introduced by Messrs. T. S. Wheelock & Co., New York, New York.

Self Lubricating Axle. Hub July 1876 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for oil fitting sold and illustrated by Sheldon & Co., Auburn, New York. Patented by Charles H. Tibbetts, Rochester, New York.

Smith, C. Parallel Axles. Hub August 1876 page Note: Why an axle with Parallel arm fractures more than a taper arm.

Excelsior Elastic Wheel. Hub November 1876 page Note: Half page advertisement of a description of box is suspended upon spring rubber, imbedded in the hub. Gives patent dates. Made by J. B. Sammis & Co., New York, New York.

Rubber Cushioned Axle. Hub February 1877 page Note: Full page advertisement for the Rubber Cushioned Axle Co., New York, New York. Illustrated with three engravings. Description of merits and list of manufactures licensed to manufacture. Should refer to the following articles for installing the rubber cushioned axle. How To Box Wheels With Rubber-cushioned Axles. Hub May 1878, page . How To Box Cushioned Axles. Hub December 1879 page A116

Cleveland Axle Manufacturing Co., Hub March 1877 page Note: Third page advertisement for Cleveland Axle Manufacturing Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Uses Homogeneous Steel and Iron.

Cain, Tubal. How To Get the Length of Axle-Stocks or Beds. Hub May 1877 page Note: Illustrated is a gauge and description on using it. Table of measurements is given with a explanation. Tubal Cain is a fictitious name.

Casson, W. T. Boxes Sticking Fast On New Axles. Hub May 1877 page [refers to February 1877 Hub} Note: Writer gives various ways tried for shipping carriages by rail, to keep the wheels boxes from sticking. Also gives directions for removing a stuck wheel.

Collinge Axles. Hub July 1877 page Note: Writes about the history of Collinge axle in America first introduced by Mr. Saunders, Hastings-on-the-Hudson, New York in 1840. Gives the merits of Collinge axles. Recommends Barton & Guestier's olive oil for use on the axles.

Spring Axle and Steel Works. Hub September 1877 page Note: Third of page advertisement for factory of J. S. Liggett, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Illustration of factory.

Carlton's Improved Axle Gauge. Hub September 1877 page Note: Illustration and description of improved axle gauge invented by C. W. Carlton, of Boise City, Idaho. Also a half page advertisement on page # sold by William B. Morris, Boise City, Idaho. A229-230

Anchor Brand Axles. Hub November 1877 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for Sheldon & Co., Auburn, New York axles. Illustrated with medal they won at the 1876 Centennial claiming the highest award for axles.

Something About Axles. Hub February 1878 page Note: Short history of the Mt. Carmel Axle Works, Mount Carmel, Connecticut. The first Axle manufacture in the US. First axle manufacture to turn the axles on a lathe. Short general history with important dates for a time-line.

Tool For Regulating Gather Of Axles. Hub April 1878 page Note: Illustration and description of a simple hand tool made by H. Ehlers, of New York, New York.

How To Box Wheels With Rubber-cushioned Axles. Hub May 1878 pages Note: A231-232

Patent Spring Washer Axles. Hub January 1879 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for axle made by Sheldon & Co., Auburn, New York. Two illustrations of Collinge axle one for light work and one for heavy work.

Miller's Patent Axle. Hub January 1879 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for axle made by Ives & Miller, New Haven, Connecticut. Illustrated is axle arm and boxing.

Swing and Gather of Axles. Hub March 1879. "The swing of the wheels is governed by their dish." Doesn't put any gather in the wheels.

Mason Patent Wheel. Hub July 1879 page Note: Half page advertisement for Mason Patent Wheel Co., Crown Point, Essex County, New York. Illustrated is a cross section of hub, axle arm and box.

Oiling Axles. Hub August 1879 page Note: Promotes A. E. Smith's axle grease for grease axles and castor oil for mail axles and sperm oil for Collinge axles.

Our Improved Self-Lubricating Axle. Hub January 1880 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Cleveland Axle Mfg. Co., Cleveland, Ohio illustrating their improved self-lubricating axle that uses "Dixon's American Graphite Everlasting Axle Grease," to which add Castor Oil.

Hubbard, George A. Iron Axles versus Pipe-Skeins. Hub January 1880 pages February 1880 pages March 1880 pages {previous article page 157} Note: Writes at great length and detail with 6 detailed illustrations. "Certainly not on account of its improving the running qualities over the iron axle, but from the reason that the play between the journal-box and bearing requires that, as the play between the two is increase, so should be the play between the box and the nut and shoulder."

Farr, Willis M. Imperfect Protection of Axle-Arms >From Grit. Hub January 1880 page Note: Writes about the need for axles to be protected from grit and dirt getting into the collar.

Representative French Axle Works. Hub March 1880 page Note: Factory of Lemoine, Ivry, Paris, France. Mostly a description of the hours worked by the mechanics of the factory.

Gather Of Axles. Hub July 1880 page Note: Gives an example of an obstruction of two inches to be overcome by a wheel, goes into great detail and a diagram. Ends with saying both axles should be the same length.

Axle Lubricant. Hub October 1880 page Note: "For Collinge axles, winter-strained sperm oil is unquestionably the best." For other carriage axles "Always-There Lubricant."

What Makes Axles Break? Hub January 1881 page Note: Gives short statistical data of percentages of where axles break.

Huber's Adjustable Axle Box Reamer. Hub February 1881 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for Joseph H. Huber Machine Works, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Illustrated is the reamer.

Mosier, J. L. H. Carriage Wheels and Axles. Hub May-July 1881 pages Note: Mr. Mosier was foreman, blacksmith at Brewster & Co., New York, NY. Lecture delivered by J. L. H. Mosier, before the carriage drafting and construction, New York. Talks about how much swing wheels should have. How much gather shall wheels have, rigid axle gauge, tram wheels versus road carriages wheels, proper length of axles in order to get the desired track between hubs, setting the axles under, plumb line for spokes, considering platform springs, placing the springs on two-wheeled vehicles. "We must so set our axles that we may have an absolutely horizontal bearing."

Kritch Improved Self-Lubricating Axle. Hub October 1881 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Cleveland Axle Manufacturing Co., Cleveland, Ohio illustrating the Kritch Improved Self-Lubricating Axle.

Flowers, F. J. Gathering and Setting Of Axles. Hub October 1881 page Note: Mr. Flowers article is in response to Mr. Mosier article previously published in the Hub May-July 1881. Mr. Flower seems to be summarizing Mr. Mosier lecture and is in agreement.

DuBois, Howard M. Facts and Figures About Wheels and Axles. Hub June-September 1882 pages Note: Introduces several tables prepared from the experiments of Arthur Morin, Pairs. [Experiences sur le Tirage des Voitures, Faites en 1837 et 1838 by Arthur Jules Morin 1795-1880, book published in Paris, France, 1839]. Translated by Joseph Bennett, of Brooklyn, New York in a book titled Fundamental Ideas of Mechanics and Experimental Data published in 1860. Article is divided up into the following categories: Friction, as it directly affects the wheels and axles; The pont where friction is greatest between the box and the axle; The wheel as a lever; Actual gain by this lever, as indicated by the proportion of draught to load or pressure; The effects of increase of this leverage, or increase of diameter of wheels, shown in proportion of draught to pressure or load; the Influence of the width of tread, or tire, on the draught of vehicles; the effect of velocity or increase of speed on the draught of vehicles. Three illustrations plus the following tables: Friction of journals moving in boxes, Experiments upon the influence of pressure upon the draught of vehicles, Experiments on the influence of the diameter of wheels upon the resistance to the draught of vehicles, Pressure in proportions to draught and friction on ordinary roads, Experiments upon the influence of the widths of felloes or tires upon draught, Experiments upon the influence of "Velocity" upon the resistance to draught of vehicles. Two illustrations.

Lewis Axle Machine. Hub September 1882 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Uhler and Benton, New York, New York makers of the Lewis Axle Machine patented September 21, 1880. Illustration of apparatus.

R. Tomlinson Spring and Axle Works. Hub December 1882 page Note: Eight of a page advertisement for R. Tomlinson Spring and Axle Works formerly Tomlinson Spring and Axle Co., Bridgeport, Connecticut.

A. E. Smith & Warner Axle Co. Hub March 1883 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for A. E. Smith & Warner Axle., Wilmington, Delaware. Illustrated with axle spindle patented by them and their trade mark "Quaker Axle."

F. W. Wurster Axle Works. Hub March 1883 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for F. W. Wurster Axle Works, Brooklyn, New York. Illustrated with axle spindle.

Bennett, Joseph. Why Axles Break Near the Collar. Hub June 1883 page Note: "No doubt a large percentage of the axles which break at the collar are cracked or strained by setting them cold.

Fort Plains Springs=Fort Plain Axles. Hub July 1883 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for Fort Plain Spring and Axle Works, Wood, Smith & Co., Fort Plain, New York. Illustration of factory.

Kehrl. Albert. How To Get Proper Length of Axles. Hub July 1883 page Note: Sawing the axle bed to the correct length wanted and then getting the axle the correct length.

Loomis, J. R. Set and Gather Of Wagon Axles. Hub January 1884 page Note: Gives his reasons for set and gather of wagon axles. Mr. Loomis is from Stamford, New York.

Wood Hub Sulky Wheels. Hub January 1884 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for S. N. Brown & Co., Dayton, Ohio. Diagram of Brown's Patent Box.

Kehrl. Albert. Should Both Axles Be the Same Length? Hub May 1884 page Note: Illustration and explanation given with numerical figures or fractions.

Lee, R. H. Should Both Axles Be the Same Length? Hub September 1884 page Note: Writer seems to be of a different opinion than Albert Kehrl's article of May 1884. Illustration and explanation given with numerical figures or fractions.

Howe's Patent Axle. Hub October 1884 page Note: Half page advertisement for A. D. Howe & Co., Coshocton, Ohio. Illustration of cross section of hub with axle arm. List points of excellence. "The simplest, cheapest and best self-lubricator made."

How To Weld Steel Axles. Hub November 1884 page Note: Illustration and description from a carriage smith of Philadelphia. Uses borax as flux, but not to much. "Hard steel, as a rule, welds better than soft steel."

Eureka Axle. Hub January 1885 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Eureka Axle Company, Lynn, Massachusetts. Illustration of axle arm and box. Patented July 8, 1884.

Kalamazoo Sprig and Axle Company. Hub January 1885 page Note: Half page advertisement for Kalamazoo Spring and Axle Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan. Illustration of factory with smoke coming out of the smoke stack.

Stivers' Axle. Hub April 1885 page Note: Eight of a page advertisement for Hartford Spring and Axle Co., Norfolk, Connecticut, manufacturers of the Stivers' Axle illustrated.

Hartford Collinge Collar Axle. Hub April 1885 page Note: Third page advertisement for Hartford Spring and Axle Co., Norfolk, Connecticut. Illustrated with half of axle and box and nut.

Setting Of Carriage Axles. Hub June-July 1885 pages Note: Writes about "swing" and how opinions have changed and the same with "gather." Writes in support of Mr. J. L. H. Mosier's articles in Hub. Illustrations and description of setting the axle properly. Placing of the felloes or rim on the wheel. Consideration of the tire. Difference of opinions on the shape of the axle spindle. Placing the wheel on the axle so that it will do the most service and with the least strain-gives a detailed description with diagrams. Also taken in consideration is how springs effect the wheels and vice versa.

Smallwood, Scott. How To Weld Steel and Iron Axles. Hub October 1885 page Note: 3 illustrations and description of same method given by J. B. Fox in Hub June 1876 using a short lap.

Killam's Improved Spring Washer Axle. Hub October 1885 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement of for Henry Killam Co., New Haven, Connecticut. Illustrated with parts of the axle.

 

Hildebrand, H. R. How To Weld Steel and Iron Axles. Hub December 1885 page Note: Mr. Hildebrand is from Belvidere, New Jersey. Reply to article in October 1885 Hub. Writer doesn't agree with Mr. Smallwood's scarf and he thinks his scarf keeps the axle in place better when welding. Illustrated with the two different scarfs.

Gleich, Jacob and Martin, J. V. and Ruhl, D. H. How To Weld steel and Iron Axles. Hub February 1886 page Note: Response to articles, with same title, by Mr. Scott Smallwood, in October Hub, and Mr. H. R. Hildenbrand, December Hub. Note: J. V. Martin is from Rockaway, New Jersey, and D. H. Ruhl is from Colarksburgh, West Virginia and Jacob Gleich is from Columbus, Ohio. Three man write and illustrate their opinion as to whether Mr. Hildenbrand or Mr. Smallwood are right as to way they weld axles.

Sheldon & Co., New Axle-Works at Wilkesbarre [Wilkes Barre], PA. Hub March 1886 page Note: Description of new facilities for the Sheldon Axle-Works currently located at Auburn, New York. Capacity of new plant will be 1,600 finished axles per day of ten hours. They believed moving to the anthracite coal region would be an advantaged to making quality axles cheaper.

Lee, R. H. How To Remove the Arm Of A Broken Axle >From A Wheel. Hub July 1886 page Note: Illustration and description on removing broken axle arm.

Novelty Axle Setter and Axle Straightener. Hub December 1886 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for J. B. Kendall, Washington, D. C. "Simple, efficient, durable, economical." Illustrated with apparatus.

Cain, Tubal. How To Weld Axles. Hub March 1887 page Note: Uses "Cherry Heat Welding Compound." Gives dimensions for lapping steel and instructions for welding.

Letort Axle and Machine Works. Hub July 1887 page Note: Sixteenth of a page advertisement for Letort Axle and Machine Works-F. Gardner & Sons, Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

Always-There Lubricant. Hub July 1887 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for axle lubricant "Always-There Lubricant," sold by B. B. Foster & Co., New York, New York.

Flowers, F. J. How To Get the Pitch Or Set Of An Axle. Hub August 1887 page Note: Two diagrams and brief description.

Axle-set For Tracking Wheels After Ironing. Hub August 1887 page Note: Writer is from Merrimac, Massachusetts with letters D. E. B. Illustration and description of apparatus for axle-set for tracking wheels after ironing.

Graphite Axles. Hub August 1887 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Graphite Lubricating Co., Jersey City, New Jersey. Illustrated in the Graphite box for axle and graphite fifth wheel. Gives a list of companies that sell the axles.

Flowers, F. J. Proper Taper For An Axle Arm. Hub August 1887 page Note: One diagram and brief description.

Holcomb, Horace. Leakage of Oil from Axle-boxes. Hub August 1887 page Note: Gives step by step instruction on oiling axles. Should use as little oil as possible. Mr. Holcomb was foreman with Sheldon & Company.

Should An Axle-arm Be Tapered, and Why? Hub August 1887 page Note: 4 illustrations with explanations and opinions.

Leakage of Oil From Axle-boxes. Hub September 1887 page Note: "The primary cause of the grease or oil oozing out from the box is merely atmospheric pressure," and goes on to write in detail about several ways in which the axle maybe improperly fitted.

Holcomb, Horace. Should An Axle-arm Be Tapered, and Why? Hub October 1887 page Note: 4 illustrations and explanations. Horace Holcomb was foreman with Sheldon & Co.

Comparative Draft of Iron and Wood Axles. Hub October 1887 page Note: Writes about the mechanical laws. "Sufficient textile capacity for axles, id from 35,000 to 45,000 pounds per square inch, and its elasticity from 1 to 2 =BD per cent." Illustrated with four simple figures.

Nyssus. Axle Spindles. Hub November 1887 page Note: "The most important part of any vehicle entrusted with carrying human freight is the axle." Writes about the makeup of the material, crystallization, granulation or partial disintegration, caused by torsional action- axles breaking, car axles-and different axles. Illustrated with five illustrations.

American Axle and Wheel Company. Hub January 1888 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for American Axle and Wheel Company, New York, New York. List of officers and patents for the company. Illustrated with diagram of axle spindle and box.

Wanted: Rule for Setting Thimble-skein Axles. Hub May 1888 page Note: "There is no published rule for setting the axle of such wagons. To give all the details would require an illustrated treatise."

Dalzell Axle Co. Hub June 1888 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Dalzell Axle Co., South Egremont, Massachusetts.

Buffalo Patent Axle & Wheel Co. Hub November 1888 page Note: Half page advertisement for Buffalo Patent Axle & Wheel Co., Buffalo, New York. Illustrated and diagramed with parts labeled of axle.

Gurney, J. Theodore. Some Common Defects In Carriage Axles. Hub December 1888 page . Note: J. Theodore Gurney is of Boston, Massachusetts. The article is broken up into the following parts: What metal is best?-- Spindle--Gather, or forward set of axle-Set, or under pitch of axles-nuts and washers-defects of the Collinge axle-How to proportion an axle to the burden-few practical suggestions.

Fox, J. B. Welding Steel Axles and Tires. Hub April 1888 page Note: Discussion of various methods presented in the Hub November 1875, June 1876 and December 1875 and tried and then improved upon. 2 illustrations. Uses "Cherry heat compound" or fillings.

United States Axle Lubricator Co. Hub May 1888 page Note: Quarter of a page advertisement for apparatus for Patent Axle Oiler sold by United States Axle Lubricator Co., New York, New York. Five different illustrations.

Leak, H. B. Welding Steel Axles. Hub June 1888 page Note: Article in response to Hub April 1888 article by J. B. Fox. 2 illustrations and description of his method of welding axles based on twenty-five years experience. Mr. Leak is from Watertown, New York.

Sheldon Axle Co. Hub July 1888 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Sheldon Axle Co., Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania. Illustrated are three styles of cranked axle arms.

Phillipson, William. Essay On the Suspension of Carriages : Section III. Axles. Hub September 1888 pages Note: Mr. Philipson of Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, carriage builder won an awarded from the Institute of British Carriage Manufacturers for his essay on the suspension of carriages which was a series that went on for many months. Topics that he writes about are: Kinds of axles-hang, pitch, or inclination of axle-arm-strains on axles-method of strengthening axles-weak parts and their causes. It is illustrated with two diagrams and two tables of dimensions.

Recipe for Axle Grease. Hub January 1889 page Note: "Two parts tallow, two parts castor oil and one part of pulverized black-lead."

New Wentworth Dust Guard Axle. Hub March 1889 page Note: Half page advertisement for Wentworth Spring and Axle Co., Gardiner, Maine. 3 engravings showing different views. List of reasons for its use.

How To Set Thimble-skein Axles. Hub May 1889 page Note: Articles goes into lot of detail and is illustrated with 8 diagrams. How to cut a wooden axle with thimble-skeins and how to set thimble-skein axles.

Tomlinson Spring Co. Hub May 1889 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for Tomilson Spring Co., Newark, New Jersey. Illustrated is the Collinge axle with Fisher's patent lock nut.

American Axle and Wheel Company. Hub May 1889 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement, illustrated with a full length axle of the American Axle and Wheel Company of New York City.

An Attempt To Introduce Standard Proportions for Collinge Axles. Hub April 1890 page Note: Description and detailed table of dimensions for various parts of Collinge Axles.

Smallwood, Scott. Finishing of Axles. Hub April, 1890 page Note: Writes on the different brands of axles in the market and all the different ways they are made.

Lawson, Sydney. Quality, Durability, and Easy-running of Carriage Axles. Hub April 1890 page Note: Mr. Lawson is from Birmingham, England. Paper read before the Institute of British Carriage Manufacturers. Considered are the three kinds of boxes: cast, wrought, and chilled. Writes about if you want to make a good quality axle it can not be made cheaply.

"Sticking" Of Axles and Boxes In Transit. Hub June 1890 page Note: Lengthy article on the character of Collinge axles. Writer is in favor of transporting vehicle with saw-horses that keeps the wheels 2 inches off the ground or an adjustable jack.

Simple Form of Axle-Set Gauge. Hub October 1890 page Note: Illustration and description of simple hand made axle gauge made by D. E. B., of Merrimac, Massachusetts.

Heating Of Hub-boxes: A Problem In Axles. Hub October 1890 page Note: A blacksmith of fourteen years experience writes about his frustration of trying to get some axles set correctly. A response is given by expert as to a possible cause being a funnel shaped or duplex funnel-shaped box. Gives a lengthy description of the character of funnel-shaped boxes. A222

Van Benthuysen, William H. Sticking Of Boxes and Fracture of Axles. Hub May 1891 page {refers to hub vol. 32 page 967} Note: In response to two previously articles on sticking axles Mr. Van Benthuysen believes they have overlooked the use of axle washers. He gives his description on his firm belief on the character of leather washers.

Axles Running Dry and Heating. Hub February 1891 pages {refers to Hub January 1891 page 797 and Hub October 1890 page 517} Note: Writes the parallel spindles of Collinge axles and the setting of different axles. Reprinted is part of mailing-slip by Cleveland Axle Mfg. Co., titled "Some Points About Axles." Some of the terms they use are: heating, locking, stick, and nib jumping. Writes about the breakage of axles and gives three illustrations. A214-215.

Information Wanted Regarding the Oiling of Full Collinge Axles. Hub June 1891 page Note: Gives directions for cleaning and oiling axles, uses sperm oil.

Parallel verses Taper Spindle for Axles. Hub October 1891 page Note: The parallel spindle is confined chiefly to the Collinge pattern or style of axle and the taper axle is used for the maximum carrying strain. Illustration of Parallel and Taper spindle.

Manufacture of Axles. Hub November 1891 page Note: Easy to read and 4 illustrations of making the axle straight axle and the cranked axle.

Welding Heavy Steel Axles. Hub February 1892 page Note: Writes about getting the fire just right.

Length of Axles. Hub June 1892 page Note: Writer is of the opinion that there is no necessity for making one axle longer than the other.

Hand Thread Tracer. Hub June 1892 page Note: Illustration and description of hand thread tracer.

Axle Rest. Hub June 1892 page Note: Illustration and description of apparatus for the helper of the blacksmith to hold axle while the blacksmith gets axle welded.

Verniaud, C. Few Words On Lubrication : Different Lubricants and When To Use Them. Hub August 1892 page Note: Very detailed scientific article for more than just carriage axles. Writes about friction and heating of the metal and different lubricants.

Axles-Standard Measurement. Hub April 1893 page Note: Description of list and table of standard wagon axles adopted by the wagon manufacturers of Pittsburgh and Allegheny.

Bettendorf Hollow-Steel Wagon Axles. Hub May 1893 page Note: Description and illustrations of the patented Bettendorf Hollow-Steel Wagon Axles made by W. P. Bettendorf, Davenport, Iowa. Description of how they are manufactured.

Bettendorf Hollow-Steel Wagon Axles. Hub June 1893 page Note: Half page advertisement for Bettendorf Hollow-Steel Wagon Axle Works, Davenport, Iowa. Two full length illustrations of their steel axles.

Dry Hickory Wagon Axles. Hub June 1893 page Note: Illustration and description of axles made by Union Foundry and Machine Works, of Mansfield, Ohio.

 

 

Sticking of Axle Boxes. Hub February 1894 page Note: "An "old school" carriage maker's remedy, was to always grind up the axle boxes on the spindles, using raw linseed oil and emery, before oiling with castor oil." Carriage builders should advice customer not to drive on heated axle boxes, but they should turn the wheel backwards at the first sign of sticking.

Welding Steel Axles and Tires. Hub March 1894 page Note: Gives measurements for setting coach axles. Writes dish wheels are now the fashion. Setting heavy tires.

Imperial Ball-Bearing Axles. Hub April 1894 page Note: Description of ball-bearing axle made by Kelly Maus & Co., Chicago, Illinois.

Michigan Bike Buggy. Hub June 1894 page Note: Two full page advertisements for Patent Ball Bearing Axle, made by Michigan Wheel Co., Lansing, Michigan. First page has diagram of cross section of hub with bearing, and six reasons why it is the best. Second page has a table of prices and illustration of Michigan Bike Buggy.

M. F. Deininger. Hub June, 1894 page Note: Half page advertisement for M. F. Deininger, Brooklyn, New York. Three illustrations of their patented axle. "Most Perfect Nut Lock and Lubricator Ever Patented."

To Remove "Stuck" Box From Axle. Hub July 1894 page Note: The wheel is removed from the boxing, than the boxing has to be removed from the spindle. Gives a lengthy description of removing the boxing from the spindle with blows of the hammer and oil.

Kelley, Maus and Company. Hub October 1894 page Note: Full page advertisement for the "Imperial" Ball Bearing Vehicle Axle, manufactured by Kelley, Maus & Co., Chicago, Illinois. Engraving of cross-section of axle arm and boxing. List the sizes available.

Cranked Axles. Hub October 1894 pages Note: Lengthy article with illustrations on the making of cranked axles.

Hind Axles for Runabouts. Hub December 1894 pages Note: "Full, ripe, juicy chapter, something worth studying on with profit." Detailed illustrated article on making the hind axles for runabouts.

Wheels With Ball Bearing Axles. Hub January 1895 page Note: Description of ball-bearing axle sold by Michigan Wheel Co., Lansing, Michigan. 2 full page illustrations included in the advertising section of the Hub.

Axle Makers and Manufacturers. Hub February 1895 page Note: Full page advertisement for Brewer Longitudinal Axle Lubricator Co., Boston, Massachusetts. Top half of advertisement is illustrated with axle arm patented April 14, 1891 and bottom half is illustrated with delivery wagon with the front wheel off and man using an apparatus to lubricate the axle.

Meeker Ball-Bearing Wheel and Axle. Hub April 1895 page Note: Illustration and description of the Meeker Ball-Bearing Wheel and Axle. "Record of running 9 months without attention (covering, at the least estimate 3,500 miles)" {Where from ?} Illustrated with cross section of hub for Sarven wheel, patented in Feb. 12, 1895.

Crawford Ball, Bearing, Axles. Hub April 1895 page Note: Half page advertisement for Crawford Wheel and Gear Co., Hagerstown, Maryland. Engraving of axle arm cross section. Has stood the test of 10,000 miles. It can be fitted to any wheel the same as an ordinary axle, and occupies no more space.

Model Wheel Factory. Hub April 1895 page Note: Description of the Portsmouth Wheel Company, Washington C. H., Ohio. Five acre factory complex.

Imperial Ball-bearing Axle Co. Hub May 1895 page Note: Half page advertisement with diagram of axle arm with all the parts labeled. Patented Oct. 2, 1894. Testimonials by a couple of companies.

Axles, Past, Present and Future. Hub May 1895 page Note: Very general over view of different kinds of axles since 1860.

Richards Long Distance Axle. Hub July 1895 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Wentworth Spring and Axle Co., Gardiner, Maine, licensees for Richards Long Distance Axle. Illustration of axle arm and a hand holding a oil can towards axle.

Ball Bearing For Vehicles. Hub July 1895 page Note: Half page advertisement for Portsmouth Wheel Co., Washington C. H., Ohio. Illustration of axle arm and hub patented Feb. 12, 1895.

Oiling Ball-Bearings. Hub October 1895 page Note: The editor of the Hub is asking readers if they have an opinion as to whether or not to use oil for ball-bearings.

Staacke, H. G. Oiling Ball-bearings. Hub November 1895 page Note: Mr. Staacke is from San Antonio, Texas and is responding to the article in October Hub. Says he uses vaseline for good results for the ball-bearings of his buggy wheels.

Lee & Porter Axle Works, Buchanan, Michigan. Hub November 1895 page Note: Illustration and description of factory. Also illustrated is their monogram on the nut.

Rock City Solid Axle Oil. Hub December 1895 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Rock City (Plumbago) Solid Axle Oil, sold by American Shaft Holder Co., Wabash, Indiana. Illustration of can for axle oil.

Ball-bearing Axles. Hub March 1896 page Note: Claims friction is reduced by 60 per cent when using ball-bearings. Lengthy history concerning the Imperial Ball-Bearing Axle. Mentioned are the tests done, Gananoque Spring & Axle Co., of Gananoque, Ontario, Canada, licensee, E. Walter Herrick, of Kombi Camera Co., formerly with Kelley, Maus & Co., manger of Imperial Ball-Bearing Axle Co., their eastern representative Frank J. Smith formerly with New York Fifth Wheel Co., western representative Claude Platt, formerly with the Richland Buggy Co., assistant manager J. M. Harley formerly with Standard Wheel Co.

Imperial Ball-Bearing Axles. Hub August 1896 page Note: Full page advertisement for Imperial Ball-Bearing Axle Co., Chicago, Illinois. Illustrated with many different parts and views, wrench included that is used for axle. Highest Award at the Atlanta Exposition.

No. 2 Patent Automatic Skein Setting and Fitting Machine. Hub August 1896 page Note: Illustration and description of skein setting machine made by Defiance Machine Works, Defiance, Ohio. "With friction clutch and automatic feed. Export shipping weight, 4,000 pounds, net weight, 3,300 pounds, cubic measurement, 225 feet."

 

Bantam Mfg. Co. Hub July 1901 page Note: Quarter page advertisement of for Bantam Mfg. Co., Bantam, Connecticut, makers of the Morse Roller Bearing Axle. Illustration of axle with parts labeled.

Dalzell Patent Axle. Hub July 1901 page Note: Full page advertisement with illustration of the Dalzell Axle Co., South Egremont, Massachusetts, other half of page illustrated with axle arms for Automobiles.

New Ball Bearing Industry. Hub July 1901 page Note: Description and illustrations of a new German ball-bearing axle being sold by a United States company German Secret Process Steel Ball Company. Prospectus found in the advertising section. {company located where?}

Spears Axle Co. Hub July 1901 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Spears Axle Co., Wheeling, West Virginia. Illustrated is their trade mark a horseshoe and an axle arm with oil pad.

Dolson's Noiseless Axle. Hub October 1902 page Note: Half page advertisement for Liggett Spring and Axle Company, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. "Will run from 3 to 6 months with one oiling." Illustration of axle patented in Oct. 31, 1900.

Porter Patent Dust Proof Axle. Hub October 1902 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for Lee and Porter, Dowagiac and Buchanan, Michigan. Illustrated is a cross section of hub, boxing and axle arm. "Only 2,500 mile standard axle in existence."

Standard Ball Axle Works. Hub June 1907 page Note: Sixteenth of a page advertisement for Standard Ball Axle Works, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Illustrated is a cross section of axle arm and box with parts labeled.

Pray Spring Washer Coach Axle. Hub March 1909 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Dalzell Axle Co., South Egremont, Massachusetts. Illustrated is cross section of Pray spring washer coach axle.

Timken Roller Bearing Axles. Hub March 1909 page Note: Full page advertisement for the Timken Roller Bearing Axle Co., Canton, Ohio. Cross section of axle arm illustrated showing tapered roller bearings.

 

 

CARRIAGE MONTHLY

Philadelphia Axle Works. Carriage Monthly April 1873 page Note: Half page advertisement for the Brinton & Johnson, Philadelphia Axle Works, illustration of factory. "Fine axles only-all warranted."

Axle Washers. Carriage Monthly April 1873 page Note: Calculates the number of revolutions a wheel makes that is 4 feet in diameter and goes ten miles and hour. Writes about wheels sticking fast and is against the leather washer and for the patent washer.

Heating of Boxes. Carriage Monthly March 1875 page Note: "Which axle is the most likely to cause a hot box, one with a case-hardened exterior, or one not hardened?" Lengthy discussion on the theory of the subject. "

Philadelphia Steam Forge & Axle Co. Carriage Monthly July 1876 page Note: Half page advertisement illustrated with a medal the company won in October 1874. List of the different kinds of axles they make. Robert M. Brinton, Secretary.

H. R. Smith & Co. Carriage Monthly July 1876 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for H. R. Smith & Company, Columbus, Ohio. Illustrated with Schreyer's Patent Steel Wagon Skein.

Steele's Patent Sand Box Axles. Carriage Monthly February 1877 page . Note: Full page advertisement of Steele's Patent Sand Box Axles, manufactured by Goodyear & Ives, New Haven, Connecticut- L. F. Goodyear and George E. Ives. Two illustrations one of the axle spindle and the other exterior of axle box with nut.

D. Arthur Brown & Co., Carriage Monthly February 1877 page Note: Half page advertisement for D. Arthur Brown & Co., Fisherville (Concord), New Hampshire. "Most Excellent Materials, are Finely Finished."

Pennsylvania Axle Works. Carriage Monthly October 1877 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for axle works of Advena & Heald, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Illustrated with medal they won at Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876. A86

Bay State Carriage Washers. Carriage Monthly October 1877 page Note: Fifth of a page advertisement for C. T. Grilley, Boston, Massachusetts for sole leather washers. Illustrated with collar and nut leather washers.

Champion Washers. Carriage Monthly October 1877 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for John R. Read, Providence, Rhode Island and sole leather Champion Washer.

Mowry Axle and Machine Co. Carriage Monthly April 1878 page Note: Quarter of a page advertisement for Mowry Axle and Machine Co., Greenville, Connecticut. Established 1845. Manufacturers of Reed & Bowen's Patent combined upsetter, shear and punch and the J. B. West's American tire setter.

Cleveland Axle Manufacturing Company. Carriage Monthly April 1878 page Note: Chart of axles sold by Cleveland Axle Manufacturing Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Double Refined Iron, superior quality and finish, all steel converted, extra quality steel, improved R. J's, composition boxes. Chart gives sizes and prices.

Hendry Patent Axle. Carriage Monthly December 1878 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for Hendry Patent Axle Co., South Abington, Massachusetts. Illustrated with a cross section of hub, box and axle arm.

John A. Way and Company. Carriage Monthly December 1878 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for Leather Rawhide Carriage Washers sold by John A. Way & Co., Bristol, Connecticut.

Mosier, J. H. L. An Adjustable Wrench For Rubber-cushioned Axles. Carriage Monthly December 1878 page Note: Illustration and description of wrench made by Mr. Mosier, foreman, blacksmith with Brewster & Co., New York, New York.

Too For Bending Axles Close To the Shoulder or Collar. Carriage Monthly December 1878 page Note: Illustration and description of swedge blocks for bending axles close.

S. Rogers & Son. Carriage Monthly December 1878 page Note: Eight of a page advertisement for S. Rogers & Son, Stanfordville, Dutchess County, New York, manufacturers of fine carriage and truck axles. Established 1843.

Heavy Axle Stocks. Carriage Monthly July 1879 page Note: Writer wants to know what is gained by increases the caliber of the stock over the spindle. "If the arm is of a greater caliber than the stock, the objective point is at the stock, but if the stock is of a greater caliber than the arm, the objective point is at the arm; but if both are of equal caliber, then there is a mutual strain throughout."

Columbus Steel Skein. Carriage Monthly September 1880 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Emmick, Ford and Ogden, Columbus, Ohio. Illustrated with two different axle arms, one has linch pin and the other threaded end for nut.

Advena & Scott. Carriage Monthly November 1880 page Note: Sixteenth of a page advertisement for Advena & Scott, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, manufacturers of wagon and carriage axles.

 

 

Common Sense Sand and Mud Bands. Carriage Monthly July 1882 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Stark and Farr, Dowagiac, Michigan. Illustrated is sand and mud bands for the collar of axles, will cause the vehicle to run two to five times as far with one oiling.

Axles. Carriage Monthly November 1882 page Note: Describes the process by which axles are made-making the collar, spindle in one heat, turned on the lathe, thread or screw, hardening process, steel converted axles.

Pennsylvania Axle Works. Carriage Monthly December 1882 page Note: Sixteenth of a page advertisement for Heald & Jones, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, manufacturers of fine carriage axles.

Dalzell & Co. Carriage Monthly December 1882 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Dalzell & Co., South Egremont, Massachusetts. Illustration of Dalzell's Centennial Axle patented Sept. 25th, 1876. Testimony of Brewster of New York. A119

Martern, Louis. Thimble-skein versus Iron or Steel Axles. Carriage Monthly January 1883 page Note: Two people write to the editor with their opinions about iron and steel axle in response to the article published in October. {article from October}

Flaws In Axle Arms. Carriage Monthly March 1883 page Note: Investigation into the causes of axles breaking on omnibuses in Paris, France. The omnibus company had 436 vehicles in use.

Welding Steel Axles. Carriage Monthly June 1883 page Note: Short description and illustration of joining axle. Uses borax.

Mehurin's Patent Axle. Carriage Monthly August 1883 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for O. C. Mehurin, Newark, Ohio. Illustrated is a cross section of axle arm.

Straightening Bent Axle-spindles. Carriage Monthly October 1883 page Note: Gives a short description using a wooden bock.

Casho Machine Co. Carriage Monthly January 1884 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Casho Machine Co., Wilmington, Delaware, manufacturers of carriage and wagon axles. Illustration of axle end.

A. E. "Smith" Axle. Carriage Monthly July 1884 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Alfred E. Smith and Warner Axle Co., Wilmington, Delaware. Patent date of May 30th 1882. Illustrated with cross section of axle arm and box.

Liggett Spring and Axle Co. Carriage Monthly July 1884 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Liggett Spring and Axle Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Shorthouse, W. T. Art of Carriage-axle Manufacture. Carriage Monthly October 1884 pages. Note: Reprinted from the Coach-builders' Art Journal a paper read before the Institute of British Carriage Manufacturers June 17th 1884. Paper goes into great detail from the metal used to the qualities of axles. Plus a recommendation for standard axle sizes.

Parker's Patent Flanged Axle. Carriage Monthly May 1885 page Note: Half page advertisement for A. E. Parker, Dubuque, Iowa. Illustrated are two full length axles and three axle arms. Lists ten advantages of the axle.

Safety Axle-cap Nut. Carriage Monthly November 1885 page Note: Half page advertisement for John I. Holly, New York, New York for Safety Axle-cap Nut. Two illustrations of the medal it won at the American Institute, New York, and two illustrations of axle cap.

Most Valuable Supplement: Mathematical Scale of Proportional Sizes for Wheels, Springs and Axles, Carrying Capacities and Weight of 50 Finished Carriages. Carriage Monthly January 1886 page Note: Description of elaborate chart calculations for diameter of hubs based on the size of axle and axle-box. The size of axles depend greatly on the width of track. Description of chart only chart not located.

 

Sneath, R. G. Iron Axles. Carriage Monthly April 1886 page Note: Writes at length over the frustration and loss of time in having axles not fitting and interchangeable. Would like to see uniform sizes for axles.

Laying Out Wooden Axles. Carriage Monthly April 1886 page Note: Two detailed diagrams with lengthy description. "Wooden axles always have gather, the rule being from =BD to 1inch."

Welding Steel Axles. Carriage Monthly May 1886 page Note: Doesn't believe that you can restore burnt steel if you get the heat to hot. Write in criticism against an article published in the Hub November 1884. Writes about the different steels for axles.

Steel vs. Iron Axles. Carriage Monthly September 1886 page Note: Writes about the variations between steel and iron axles. "My idea in regard to the whole axle question is as follows: Take a steel axle with from 20 to 25 per cent. of carbon, and steel-convert (case-harden) the arms; then you get a first-class axle, much better than you would from an iron axle with steel-converted arms."

Uncle Steve. How Axles are Made. Carriage Monthly September 1886 pages Note: Makes a short note of the history of axles from ancient times to the 19th century. How the nut was held on before left hand thread, Collinge axle, welded collar, solid iron collar. Then the article goes into detail about the making of the solid iron collar axle.

Corey's Patent Axle. Carriage Monthly November 1886 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for W. I. Corey, Cincinnati, Ohio. Illustration of axle arm patented Oct. 13, 1885. A121

Vulcanized Fibre Company. Carriage Monthly November 1886 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for axle washers sold by the Vulcanized Fibre Company, Wilmington, Delaware factory, and sales office New York, New York. Illustrated with three washers.

Oiling and Putting On Washers. Carriage Monthly July 1887 page Note: Very detailed and lengthy article of instructions on care of axles. "Owners of carriages should never let wheels get more than 1/8 inch play on the arm without getting new washers on."

Bristol Washer Co. Carriage Monthly September 1887 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Bristol Washer Company, Bristol, Connecticut. Illustration of washer. G. W. Neubauer, proprietor.

F. W. Wurster. Carriage Monthly September 1887 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for F. W. Wurster, Spring and Axle Works, Brooklyn, New York.

Wurster's Axle Oiler. Carriage Monthly September 1887 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for apparatus for oiling axles sold by F. W. Wurster Spring and Axle Works, Brooklyn, New York.

Carrying Capacity of Axles. Carriage Monthly January 1888 page Note: Gives four different sizes of axles and their carrying capacity.

Baum's Castorine Axle Oil. Carriage Monthly March 1888 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Baum's Axle Lubricants, Syracuse, Ne w York. Very decorative illustration.

Anti-Friction Roller Bearing. Carriage Monthly February 1889 page Note: Illustration with different parts labeled and description of anti-friction roller bearing made by Standard Roller Bearing Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

 

Setting Axles. Carriage Monthly March 1889 page Note: Explanation refers to patent wheels when there is no stagger.

Unknown title. Carriage Monthly July 1889 page 105. Note:

Anthony, G. Causes Of Axles Sticking Fast To the Boxes. Carriage Monthly February 1890 page 318. Note: Mr. Anthony, well-known engineer of Arts and Manufactures gives an orderly list of seven reasons why axles stick. He also writes about different ways to prevent axle boxes from sticking and gives an illustration.

Leather Axle Washers. Carriage Monthly April 1890 page Note: Short article on leather washers. "No other material makes so good a washer...care should be taken that the leather is properly selected."

Welding Steel Axles. Carriage Monthly June 1890 page Note: Illustration and description of getting fire just right.

Lemoine. Notes On Manufacturing Springs and Axles. Carriage Monthly June-October 1890 pages Note: Monsieur Lemoine was a leading manufacture of springs and axles in Seine, Paris, France. Choice of material before it enters into the construction. Indispensable care that must be given to the working of the material. Gives the mathematical calculation for find the weight an axle will carry. Description and illustrations of forging axles. Illustrated are several different types of axles. Turning of four different axles: Patent oil axles, Collinge system; Ordinary patent crease axles; patent grease axles; half patent axles. Illustrated are the different axle spindles. 21 illustrations in all.

 

Ruhl, D. H. Welding Steel Axles. Carriage Monthly August 1890 page Note: Mr. Ruhl is from Sidney, Ohio. Illustration of scarp joint with overlap.

Hardening Steel Axles. Carriage Monthly January 1891 page Note: Can steel axles be harden so as to increase their wearing capacity? Gives description of hardening axles.

Set and Gather Of Axles. Carriage Monthly May 1891 page Note: Brief description given with dimensions.

Setting of Axle Boxes. Carriage Monthly July 1891 page Note: Restates the seven reasons given by M. G. Anthony, Paris, France, for axles sticking published in the Carriage Monthly February 1890. Summary admits to it being a very frustrating thing to know just what exactly causes axles to stick.

Breaking Of Wagon Axles. Carriage Monthly December 1891 page Note: Writer claims more axles break in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania than any other city. One reason that is given is that far more wagons are used and also goes into detail of crystallization being a possible cause.

American Axle. Carriage Monthly January 1892 page Note: Full page advertisement for Ives and Miller, New Haven, Connecticut. Two engravings of axle arm patented in August 11, 1891.

R. Lehmann and Company. Carriage Monthly March 1892 page Note: Quarter page advertisement illustrating the oil axle sold by R. Lehmann and Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. "Most Practical, The Simplest and Best Oil Axle In the Market." Runs for three or months without oiling.

Miller's Patent Vehicle Wrench. Carriage Monthly March 1892 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for John A. Miller, St. Louis, Missouri. Illustration of different axle nuts and wrench.

Wills' Automatic Micrometer Axle Gauge. Carriage Monthly April 1892 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for William W. Wills, Janesville, Wisconsin. Testimonial from Studebaker Brothers Mfg. Co., South Bend, Indiana. Illustration of Will's Automatic Micrometer Axle Gauge placed on axle.

Notes On Springs and Axles Exhibited At the Recent Paris Universal Exposition. Carriage Monthly April 1892 page June 1892 pages Note: Thirty illustrations of different axles with descriptions. Some of the companies mentioned are: Lemoine, France the axle maker, Rothchild & Son-M=FChlbacher-Million, Guiet & Co.-Henry Binder-Gosset, S=E8vres, Seine, the carriage builders.

Lemoine. Axles-Their qualities and Usefulness. Carriage Monthly June 1892 page Note: Lengthy article with illustrations of the different axles made by the company Lemoine in France. 11 different axles illustrated.

Baker Patent Wheel. Carriage Monthly November 1892 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for W. E. Baker, Newport News, Virginia. 4 different engravings showing axle arm and hub patented August 2, 1892. A123

Smith's Patent Anti-Friction Axle Box. Carriage Monthly March 1893 page Note: Half page advertisement for G. B. Rommel & Co., Pittston, Pennsylvania. "It economizes horse power and promotes the utility of the vehicle." List of testimonials and advantages that are claimed for it. Two engravings showing different cross sections.

Liggett Spring and Axle Co. Carriage Monthly March 1893 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for the 66 Express Axles, by Liggett Spring and Axle Co., Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Illustrated with axle arm.

Sheldon Axle Company. Carriage Monthly April 1893 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Sheldon Axle Company, Wilkesbarre or Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania. Illustration of full Collinge axle.

Light Carriage of the Future. Carriage Monthly May 1893 page Note: Half page advertisement for the Common Sense Ball Bearing Axle Box for Sulkies Buggies and light carriages. Illustrated with 3 drawings. Does not give company. Check for company

Standard Gauge For Axles. Carriage Monthly June 1893 page Note: Reprint of the table published in the Hub April 1893 page # of standard gauge axles for wagons adopted by the Carriage and Wagon Manufacturers' Association, of Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pennsylvania.

Improved Skein Setting Machine. Carriage Monthly September 1893 page Note: Illustration and description of skein setting machine manufactured by Union Foundry and Machine Works, Mansfield, Ohio.

New Factory of the Cleveland Axle Co. Carriage Monthly October 1893 page Note: Illustration and description of factory at Canton, Ohio.

Sticking Of Axle Boxes. Carriage Monthly November 1893 page Note: Gives directions on how to remove a stuck axle box.

Length of Axles. Carriage Monthly February 1894 page Note: Short description of obtaining the length of axle for the wheel track needed.

Origin of Cranked Axles. Carriage Monthly February 1894 page Note: Brief history of cranked axles which is suppose of originated with the building of omnibuses which appeared in England about 1828.

Axles. Carriage Monthly February 1894 page Note: Lengthy history of the Collinge axle, first patented by John Collinge of Bridge Road, Lambeth, England, on November 2, 1787.

To Find the Length of An Axle. Carriage Monthly February 1894 page Note: Writer claims to have a very simple method of obtaining the correct length of axle easier than Mr. Mosier method.

Woodward Cork Axle Washers. Carriage Monthly June 1894 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Fischer and Weistling, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, sellers and manufactured by the Lancaster Cork Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. "Absolutely no hot boxes, no rattling." Patented October 31, 1893. Illustrated with cork axle washer.

Horse Shoe Brand Axles. Carriage Monthly June 1894 page Note: Sixteenth of a page advertisement for Spears' Axle Co., Wheeling, West Virginia. Illustrated with their trade mark a horse-shoe.

Dalton Axle Cutter and Screw Plate Combined. Carriage Monthly June 1894 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Holroyd and Dalton, Waterford, New York. Illustration of screw plate and different cutters.

Anti-Friction Ball Bearings and their Manufacture. Carriage Monthly June 1895 page {continued from page 43} Note: Read at a meeting of the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, by the late George F. Simonds. New process for hardening rings and sleeves. Merits of less friction.

Safety Axle Co. Carriage Monthly January 1895 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Safety Axle Co., New Haven, Connecticut. Illustrated with axle arm.

Standard Lines for the Curves of Axles. Carriage Monthly September 1895 page Note: Movement by carriage builders to standardize axles. Detailed description of the current styles.

Setting Axles. Carriage Monthly September - October 1895 pages Note: Very detailed article illustrated with different diagrams and illustrations. Writes about the "swing," and deflection. Headings for subjects are: Exact length of axles between hubs, calculation from center to center of rims or tire, to obtain the length of axles on staggered wheels, to obtain the length of axle when the track is taken from center to center of tire, laying out wooden axles. Tries to consider what the different wheel manufacturers are doing in the country.

Concord Axle Co. Carriage Monthly September 1895 page Note: Quarter page illustration of Concord Axle Company, Penacook, New Hampshire. Illustrated with axle arm.

Ball Bearings On Wagons. Carriage Monthly September 1895 page Note: Professor Sweet, one of the best-known mechanical engineers gives his conclusions for ball-bearings for wagons.

Knipe Manufacturing Co. Carriage Monthly October 1895 page Note: Half page advertisement for Knipe Manufacturing Co., Norristown, Pennsylvania. Illustration of hub with axle arm, patented Sept. 24, 1895.

Practical Test Of Gathering Wheels. Carriage Monthly December 1895 page Note: Tests made by Charles A. Pearce, superintendent of Columbus Buggy Co., Columbus, Ohio and the draftsman of the same company W. R. Johnston. "How much the wheels would the wheels would gather when freighted and how much the axles would deflect under the weight of 340 pounds, when rolling over the floor. List of two trails for: top corning buggy, not freighted, and top corning buggy, freighted with 365 pounds-Corning buggy, not freighted and top Corning buggy, freighted with 340 pounds. Lengthy description given after list or tables with discussion of results of gathering of wheels and gathering of heavy wheels.

Good Practice Proves Sound Theory. Carriage Monthly September 1896 page Note: Writes on his theory of plain axles for wagons after twenty years experience. Writer claims not to follow the rule of the majority, but has a theory of his own that works. Illustrated with four diagrams.

Perfect Ball Bearing Axles. Carriage Monthly September 1896 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Universal Ball Bearing Co., Chicago, Illinois. Two illustrations. Patented July 14, 1896. "Reduced price for trail order."

Dolson's Self-Oiling Axle. Carriage Monthly October 1897 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Liggett Spring and Axle Company, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, selling the patented Jan. 30, 1897, Dolson's self-oiling axle. Illustrated with cross section of hub, boxing, and axle arm.

K. & B. Frictionless Ball Bearing Axle. Carriage Monthly October 1897 page Note: Half page advertisement for Knowlton and Beach, Rochester, New York. Illustrated with the patented axle.

Mercury Ball Bearings. Carriage Monthly October 1897 page Note: Half page advertisement for selling agents Crescent Drop Forge Co., Chicago and Charles H. Seig Mfg. Company, Kenosha, Wisconsin, makers of Windsor Bicycles. Diagram of hub with cross section and labeled parts.

Timken Roller Bearings. Carriage Monthly October 1897 page Note: Full page advertisement for Timken Roller Bearing Axle Co., St. Louis, Missouri. Illustrated is cross section of boxing and axle arm with the different parts labeled.

Grant Axle. Carriage Monthly October 1897 page Note: Full page advertisement for Rubber Tire Wheel Company, Springfield, Ohio. Illustrated is the different parts of the Grant Axle. List of ten reasons why their axle is the best.

Myers' Ball Bearing Axles? Carriage Monthly February 1899 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Muskegon Chemical Fire Engine Co., Muskegon, Michigan. Illustration of two cross sections, rather than having the ball-bearings just on the ends of boxes, it has nine places that the ball-bearings circle the spindle.

Perfect Carriage Wheel. Carriage Monthly February 1899 page Note: Half page advertisement for Pneumatic Wheel Company, Freehold, New Jersey. Two illustrations of axle. Appears to be for a wire spoked wheel.

Baker Ball Bearing Axles. Carriage Monthly February 1899 page Note: Half page advertisement for United States Ball Bearing Co., Washington, D.C. Illustrated with a diagram of labeled parts. "The Simplest, Most Durable, Most Practical, and Best."

Empire and Chicago Ball Bearing Axles. Carriage Monthly February 1899 page Note: Half page advertisement for Chicago Screw Co., Chicago, Illinois. List of patent dates for C. E. Roberts and merits of. Illustration of axle arm with boxing.

Hess Self Lubricating Axle. Carriage Monthly February 1899 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Hess Spring and Axle Company, Carthage, Ohio. Illustrated is a cross section of axle arm and box with felt oil pad.

Brown's Axle. Carriage Monthly October 1899 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Concord Axle Co., Penacook, New Hampshire. Illustration of axle patented May 18, 1897 called Brown's patent.

Energy Axle Oiler. Carriage Monthly June 1900 page Note: Quarter page advertisement illustrating a small apparatus or oil can for oiling axles, sold by David True, Amesbury, Massachusetts.

 

American Roller Bearing Co. Carriage Monthly June 1900 page Note: Full page advertisement for the American Roller Bearing Co., Boston, Massachusetts. Cross section of axle arm and boxing illustrated with labels. Trade name A. R. B., gives 12 point description.

Hartford Axle Company. Carriage Monthly September 1900 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Hartford Axle Company, Dunkirk, New York. Illustrated is the factory.

Merkel Mfg. Co. Carriage Monthly July 1901 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Merkel Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Illustration of axle arm and boxing cross section.

Premier Axle Patents. Carriage Monthly July 1901 page Note: Full page advertisement for Premier Mfg. Co., Hartford, Connecticut. List of licensees and illustrations of axle forgings.

Weston Wheels. Carriage Monthly July 1901 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for I. A. Weston Co., Syracuse, New York. Illustrated with cross section of axle arm and boxing, has cone locking device.

Weston-Mott Co. Carriage Monthly July 1901 page Note: Full page advertisement for Weston-Mott Co., Utica, New York, makers of wire wheels, bike wagon axles and forgings. Illustration of ball bearing bushing for axle.

Council Perfect Lubricating Axle. Carriage Monthly December 1901 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for B. F. Keith Company, Wilmington, North Carolina. Illustrated is an axle arm and a patented apparatus (April 2, 1901) for oiling.

Buffalo Spring and Gear Co. Carriage Monthly January 1902 page Note: Full page advertisement for Buffalo Spring and Gear Co., Buffalo, New York. Illustrated with diagram of axle arm and hub with parts labeled.

Grant Roller Bearing Axles. Carriage Monthly January 1902 page Note: Full page advertisement of the Grant Axle and Wheel Co., Springfield, Ohio. Illustration of full length of axle and cross section of hub with axle arm and box, showing tapered roller bearings.

Morse Roller Bearing. Carriage Monthly May 1902 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Bantam Mfg. Co., Bantam, Connecticut. Two illustrations of axle, one diagram a cross section of axle arm with boxing has labeled parts.

Moffett Anti-Friction Roller Bearings. Carriage Monthly March 1903 page Note: Half page advertisement for Moffett Vehicle Bearing Co., Saginaw, Michigan. Illustration of style A and B.

Bloch Patent Never-Wear-Out Axle. Carriage Monthly March 1903 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Bloch Axle Co., Mobile, Alabama. Two engravings one of axle arm and the other showing the exterior of axle box and nut.

Hartford Axles. Carriage Monthly November 1903 page Note: Full page advertisement for American Air Tool Co., Dunkirk, New York. Illustrated with three different axle arms.

Brown's Patent Roller Bearing Axles. Carriage Monthly November 1903 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Concord Axle Co., Penacook, New Hampshire, makers of the Brown's Patent Roller Bearing Axle. Illustration of axle patented on May 18, 1897.

Studebaker. Carriage Monthly January 1904 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Studebaker Bros. Mfg. Co., South Bend, Indiana. Illustrated is Studebaker patent wagon skein and veneer seat.

Old-time Axle and Spring Makers. Carriage Monthly April 1904 page Note: One of the first axle makers claimed is W. H. Saunder, Hastings-On-The-Hudson, New York, established in 1832. [this contradicts the claim of the Mount Carmel Axle Works]. Prior to 1855 there was the JS & SJ Mowry, Greenville, Connecticut-Spring Perch Co., Bridgeport, Connecticut-Alfred E. Smith, Bronxville, New York-New Haven Spring Co., New Haven, Connecticut-Tomlinson Spring & Axle Co., Bridgeport, Connecticut-William Wright & Co., Newark, New Jersey-Spring Works, Rahway, New Jersey-William & Harvey Rowland, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. "This fact shows that as early as 1850 axles were swedged out of the solid bar." Other axle makers mentioned are: Solon & Ives, Newark, New Jersey, successors to J. Ives and Son-Carswell, Vande & Brake, Wilmington, Delaware-Linden Iron and steel Mfg. Co., Walpole, Massachusetts-R. M. Britton & Co.-Aetna Axle and Spring Co., Bridgeport, Connecticut-Barber, Sheldon & Co., Auburn, New York-Henry Harper, Butler, Illinois-Mosser & Camp, Allentown, Pennsylvania-Cook & Sons, Winsted, Connecticut-Keystone Axle Works, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania-Ahlborn, Neckerman & Co., Pittsburg, Pennsylvania-Sheffield Steel Works, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania-Nimick & Co., Pittsburg, Pennsylvania-F. & H. Dorson, Newark, New Jersey- John A. Griswold & Co., Troy, New York-Fuller, Dana & Fitz, Boston, Massachusetts-J. Palmer & Co., Concord, New Hampshire-Fort Plain Spring & Axle Co., Fort Plain, New York-Dalzell Axle Co., South Egremont, Massachusetts.-Concord Axle Co., Penacook, New Hampshire-D. Arthur Brown & Co., Fisherville, New Hampshire. A76-78.

Hutchison Frictionless Roller Bearing. Carriage Monthly June 1904 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for John Hutchison Mfg. Co., Jackson, Michigan. "Simplest and Strongest on the Market." Illustrated with a cross section of the hub with axle arm and box.

Perfection Spring Axle Nut. Carriage Monthly September 1904 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Perfection Spring Nut Company, Belleville, Ohio. Two illustrations for axle nut. Patented May 28, 1901.

Ansted Spring and Alex Co. Carriage Monthly September 1904 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Ansted Spring and Alex Co., Connersville, Indiana. Illustrated is the factory.

American Air Tool Co. Carriage Monthly September 1904 page Note: Half page illustration of American Air Tool Co., Dunkirk, New York. Illustration of factory complex.

Ball-Bearing Wheel Co. Carriage Monthly September 1904 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for Ball-Bearing Wheel Co., Chicago, Illinois. Illustrated is a cross section of hub, boxing and axle arm.

American Air Tool Co. Carriage Monthly November 1904 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for American Air Tool Company, formerly Hartford Axle Co., Dunkirk, New York. Illustrated is the axle arm or spindle and box with parts.

Schaefer Nut Lock. Carriage Monthly November 1904 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Schaefer Wagon Company, Canton, Ohio illustrating their nut lock. "Is the only perfect device on the market for securely holding axle nuts in position and preventing loss of wheels."

Dalzell Axle Co. Carriage Monthly May 1905 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for the Stivers Long Swell axle sold by Dalzell Axle Co., South Egremont, Massachusetts. Illustration of cross section of axle arm and box.

Newark Leather Washer Manufacturing Company. Carriage Monthly May 1905 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Newark Leather Washer Manufacturing Company, Newark, New Jersey. Illustrated with the Newark Standard Washer.

Gillette Roller Bearing Company. Carriage Monthly December 1905 page Note: Third of a page advertisement for Gillette Roller Bearing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Illustrated with a cross section of the hub with axle arm and box. Two patent numbers shown.

Mount Carmel Axle Works. Carriage Monthly December 1905 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Mount Carmel Axle Works, Mt. Carmel Center, Connecticut. Illustrated is full Collinge axle.

Spears Collinge Collar Axle. Carriage Monthly December 1905 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Spears Axle Co., Wheeling, West Virginia. Illustrated with an axle arm with oil pad.

Empire Ball Bearing Axles. Carriage Monthly June 1906 page Note: Half page advertisement for Sheldon Axle Company, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Illustrated is the Empire Ball Bearing Axle. Makers of the "Anchor Brand" and "Dragon Brand."

Bower Roller Bearing. Carriage Monthly August 1908 page Note: Half page advertisement for Bower Roller Bearing Company, Dayton, Ohio. "Lessens draft from 25 to 70%" Illustration of a cross section of hub with axle arm and box.

Cleveland Axle Mfg. Co. Carriage Monthly November 1909 page Note: Full page advertisement for Cleveland Axle Mfg. Co., Canton, Ohio. Illustrated is the Concord Express axle and the Mather Thousand Mile Axle.

Cleveland Axle Mfg. Co. Carriage Monthly May 1910 page Note: Full page advertisement for Cleveland Axle Mfg. Co., Canton, Ohio, but also includes the Dalzell's Boxes & Axles.

Western Axle Works. Carriage Monthly March 1913 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for Wood, Smith & Co., Chicago Heights, Illinois. Illustrated with cross section of axle arm and box.

Scranton Axle and Spring Co. Carriage Monthly November 1913 page Note: Full page advertisement for Scranton Axle and Spring Co., Scranton, Pennsylvania. "Vehicle trade... naturally associated the name "Scranton" with quality." Illustration of axle and spring done in an artistic way.

Concord Axle Co. Carriage Monthly November 1913 page Note: Full page advertisement for Concord Axle Co., Penacook Station, New Hampshire. Illustrated with cross sections of axle arms and boxes and one machine, also illustration of trade mark.

 

 

 

COACH-MAKERS' MAGAZINE

Mail Patent Axle. Coach-makers' Magazine June 1857 page Note: Brief history and description of.

Smith, Alfred E. Most Extensive Case Hard Axle Works In the World. Coach-makers' Magazine July 1857 page Note: Advertisement showing the factory and good description of the different axles made by the company. Alfred E. Smith of Bronxville, Westchester County, New York.

NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE.

Superior Leather-washers for Carriage Axles. New York Coach-makers' Magazine Vol. II, No. 3. (August 1859) page 60. Note: "W. H. Saunders, Patent Axle manufacturer, Hastings on the Hudson, Westchester County, New York, has invented and perfected machinery for cutting and finishing Leather-Washers for Carriage Axles."

Mears, John, Harper, Henry. Power of Axles In Overcoming Obstructions. New York Coach-makers' Magazine Vol. IV, No. 10 (July 1862) pages 156-159. Note: "There are some about who think that a large axle will run over an obstruction with less power than a small on." In reply the writer thinks the question is rather indefinite. The first writer John Mears who writes in great detail also seems to have had his article published in the Boston Cultivator. Henry Harper replies to John Mears in great detailed. Both sections are illustrated. A3-5.

Harper, Henry. Power Of Axles In Overcoming Obstructions Examined. New York Coach-makers' Magazine Vol. V, No. 1 (January 1863) pages 2-3. Note: the debate between Mears and Harper continued from the July 1862 issue of the New York Coach-makers Magazine. "Mr. Mears says the mechanical power which an axle uses in overcoming obstacles is "an inclined plane, more or less obtuse;" also that a large axle, with the accompanying irons, is heavier than a small axle. On the contrary, Harper says that the mechanical power "is purely and simply a lever power," and that the weight of a small axle is greater than a large one." Mr. Mears says that there is more rubbing surface between te box and axle of the large axle, which creates more friction to the large axle than to the small one.

Gates, J. B. Reasons For the Necessity of Gather In Axles. New York Coach-makers' Magazine Vol. V, No. 4 (July 1863) pages 50-51. Note: How to get the taper in the axle to keep the wheel from running out against the nut, or linch-pin. 2 illustrations.

Why Do Carriage Axles "Stick?" New York Coach-makers' Magazine Vol. VIII, No. 2 (July 1866) pages 26-27. Note: "The sticking of an axle, as most mechanics already know, is attributable, in a great measure, to the natural expansion of the iron under heat, in this case produced by friction." Illustrated is a mail axle description of fitting it. Gives three illustrations and description about setting and dishing the wheel properly.

Why Do Axles Stick? New York Coach-makers' Magazine Vol. VIII, No. 3 (August 1866) page 40. Note: J. W. B., responds to the article in the New York Coach-makers' Magazine Vol. VIII, No. 2 (July 1866) pages 26-27 and gives his opinion. "Axles should be made more straight at the shoulder, or loose, so that they will run even when the leather washer is gone."

Bamberger, N. C. Gauge For the Proper Set of Carriage and Wagon Axles. New York Coach-makers' Magazine Vol. VIII, No. 6 (November 1866) pages 89-90. Note: Illustration and description of Bamberger's gauge for setting axles, patented November 15, 1859. It is sold by Wilson & Dougherty of Newark, New Jersey. This resulted in much greater uniformity in the swing and gather of axles for horse-drawn vehicles.

CARRIAGE DEALERS' JOURNAL

How Carriage Axles Are Made. Carriage Dealer's Journal January 1900 pages .

Note: Lengthy feature article with photographs of the Dalzell Axle Co., South Egremont, Massachusetts. 3 pages long illustrated with photographs of different departments. Shows large heavy industrial machines being used.

COACH-MAKERS' INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL

Henry Harper's Improved Axle Guage.(spelled wrong by original editor) Coach-makers' International Journal May 1867 page Note: Quarter page advertisement for Henry Harper of Butler, Illinois for an Improved Axle Guage. Recommended by C. D. Davis, superintendent for Wisconsin Stage Company, Milwaukie.

G. F. Gillett's Patent Thimble Skein & Babbited Axle Box for Vehicles. Coach-makers' International Journal October 1867 page Note: Eighth of a page advertisement for C. F. Gillet, Sparta, Monroe County, Wisconsin. Three illustrations of axle.

Length of Axles. Coach-makers' International Journal October 1870 page Note: Getting the axles to proper length for the track of the wheels needed.

Philadelphia Axle Works. Coach-makers' International Journal March 1871 page Note: Axle works of Brinton & Johnson, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Gives descriptions of the new facility on moving to larger location.

Axle Setting. Coach-makers' International Journal November 1871 page Note: Illustration and description of an apparatus for setting axles with out harming the paint.

Collar and Axle Nuts. Coach-makers' International Journal February 1872 page Note: Query about collar and axle nuts which is answered in the Coach-makers' International Journal March 1872 page Note: "I would say, that in my opinion of collars and washers, I decidedly favor the axle nut with the collar or flange, and the small washer; the washer to be raw hide instead of leather."

Washer Cutter. Coach-makers' International Journal April 1872 page Note: Illustration and description of washer cutter made by A. C. D., Owensboro, Kentucky. Looks much like the same type of washer cutter still in use today.

Heating of Axle Arms. Coach-makers' International Journal August 1872 page Note: Writes about the different causes of axles heating. "There is no oil that causes less friction than good castor oil, as it does not gum."

G. & D. COOK & COMPANY'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOG.

 

Mt. Carmel Axle Works. G. & D. Cook & Company's Illustrated Catalog, 1860 page Note: Advertisement showing 26 illustrations of different axles made. Mt. Carmel Axle Works, of New Haven, Connecticut was established in 1833. Frederic Ives proprietor.

ASHER AND ADAMS' PICTORIAL ALBUM OF AMERICAN INDUSTRY.

View of D. Arthur Brown & Co.'s Axle Works, Concord, [Fisherville,] N. H. Asher & Adams' Pictorial Album of American Industry, 1876 page Note: Illustration of factory and history of company other names of the company were: L. & A. H. Drown & Co., Warren Johnson changing its name 7 times. Gives a description of there product.

Fort Plain Spring and Axle Works. Asher & Adams' Pictorial Album of American Industry, 1876 page Note: Illustration and description of factory. Business owned by Clark, Smith & Co. They employee 100 operatives. They annually worked up one thousand tons of bar iron, five hundred tons of steel, one hundred and fifty tons of pig-iron, fifty grindstones, weighing three tons each, are annually required, and the yearly consumption of coal is about fifteen hundred tons.

R. Cook & Sons. Asher & Adams' Pictorial Album of American Industry, 1876 page Note: Illustrations of axles and description and history of company. Company established in 1839 in Winsted, Connecticut. Head of the firm Reuben Cook started making axle drafts in 1825 previously engaged in the iron business.

Peloubet, Don. Two Types of Early American Axles- Prior to 1850. Carriage and Wagon Axles for Horse-drawn Vehicles page 170. Note: Line illustrations of two early wooden axles with different ways of applying the metal bands, both use a linch pin.

HARNESS AND CARRIAGE JOURNAL

Steel Axles Condemned. Harness and Carriage Journal, November 1879 page Note: Writer is for iron axles. "We think steel axles a great humbug. They can not be case-hardened."

AMERICAN BLACKSMITH

Hoffer, J. How To Make and Use an Axle Gauge. American Blacksmith June 1911 page Note: Illustration and description of hand made axle gauge. One of these can be seen in the collection of the Carriage Museum of America. A237

DEFIANCE MACHINE WORKS CATALOG

No. 1 Improved Axle Shoulder Shaping Machine. Defiance Machine Works, Catalog, 1910 page . Note: Illustration of machine only. A183

UNKNOWN

Illustration of Philadelphia Axle Works. Carriage and Wagon Axles for Horse-drawn Vehicles page 199