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Coach Lace Industry in the United States of America

The making of coach lace appears as a small home industry scattered over several sections of eastern United States around the 1800’s. Some of these small home industries coexist with more sophisticated manufacturers up until about the 1860’s. One or two small manufacturers were known to have a specialty trade of making custom orders to about the 1880’s. By the 1900’s there were only 5 manufacturers making coach lace in the United States: Bridgeport Coach Lace Company, Bridgeport, Connecticut (established 1837) - Wm. Horstmann, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (established 1816) - New York Coach Lace Company, New York, New York - Schaefer and Schlegel, Rochester, New York, Vogt Manufacturing and Coach Lace Company, Rochester, New York.

The United States census of 1860 reported 6 establishments that specialized in making coach lace exclusively, three were in Connecticut, two in New York, and one in New Jersey. (Listed else where in the census were such companies as the Wm. Horstmann of Philadelphia who was a large manufacture of coach lace and other types of trims, for dresses, uniforms, home and carriages).

The six establishments had an aggregate capital $42,800 devoted to this manufacture, and it employed altogether 96 persons, of whom 16 were females, at a total annual cost for wages of $32,364, and for material, (including 1,305 pounds of raw silk,) of $28,987. The value of coach lace made was $89,200. Of these amounts, $40,000 in capital, 62 male and all the female hands were returned by three establishments in Connecticut, which also reported $78,000 of the total products as the yearly value of their manufactures. These factories consumed 1,131 pounds of raw silk, costing, with all other materials, $24,087, and paid for labor $27,504. Two of these establishments were in Bridgeport, [E. K. Mills Company and Coach Lace Company] and with 50 hands, of whom 9 were females, produced coach lace and trimmings to the value of $55,000, and the same articles were made at Hartford [unknown factory] to a considerable amount. Two in New York [Bartholomew Delapierre and Hayden and Letchworth] made coach lace to the value of $2,400; and one in New Jersey, [unknown factory] employing 15 hands, produced a value of $8,800.1

#est capital raw silk cost of raw male female annual cost annual value

invested used materials of labor of product

CT 3 $40,000 1,131 $24,087 62 16 $27,504 $78,000

NY 2 $1,200 40 $905 3 $846 $2,400

NJ 1 $1,606 134 $4,000 15 $4,020 $8,800

total 6 $42,000 1,305 $28,887 80 16 $32,370 $89,200

Bridgeport, Connecticut

Alfred Bailey - lace weaver 1855-1873 West Liberty near Warren Avenue

John Booth - lace weaver 1857 may be the same person moved to New Haven, Connecticut

Bridgeport Coach Lace Company, Johns Street 1878-1899

Bridgeport Coach Lace Company, Wood Avenue 1899-1937 changed to Bridgeport Fabrics.

George Carlock2, 3 1837-1845 changed to Leigh & Mills

George Bateman - lace weaver 1855 rear 132 Washington Avenue

Seaward Benson - lace weaver 1855 rear 50 lambert

Albert Brisban - lace weaver 1873

James Brown - lace weaver 1855 rear 50 Lambert

Frederick Bruen - lace weaver 1855 rear 50 Lambert

James Clark 4- lace weaver 1855-1858

Coach Lace Company - 43 John Street - 1855 - 1858 changed to William Boston agent in 1855

Robert Cunningham 1855

Levi Dart - lace weaver - East Bridgeport - 1855 - 1857

James Downs - lace weaver 1855

Delf Henry - lace weaver 1857

Robert Hitchings 1855

Charles Hull - lace weaver - 1855-1858

James D. Gould - lace weaver 1857

John Gould

George Karlock - lace weaver 1857

Charles Lanslair 1855

Leigh and Mills 5 about 1845-1847 changed to B. K. Mills

G. Longworth 1855

George McBride 1855

James McBride - lace weaver 1855-1858

John Mulley - lace weaver - 1857

B. (Benjamin) K. Mills & Company - sometime after 1847 - 1878 changed to Bridgeport Coach Lace Company. Thomas Mills - lace weaver - Beaver, c Courtland - 1855 - 1858

Nelson G. Palmer 1855

Thomas Roe - lace weaver - 1857

Charles Rinaldi 1873

Joseph Robbins 1855

Isaac Sheets - lace weaver 1855

Henry Smith 1855

Nathan Thomson 1855

Levi S. Thorp - lace weaver - 1857 also spelled Levi Thorpe

Francis Vinegetar 1855

Jacob E. Vreeland 1855


David Brothwell, 1850 census Coach Lace Weaver. MacRury, Elizabeth Banks; Banks, Elizabeth, V. H. Bank.This is Fairfield, 1639-1940; Pages from Three Hundred One Years of the Town. 1960, page 186.


George Thompson, "To church October, a coach lace weaver by trade." Anderews, Alfred. Memorial. Genealogy, and Ecclesiastical History. Chicago, IL : A. H. Andrews, 1867, page 398.

Hartford, Connecticut

Unknown business for the year 1860, from 1860 census.


Timothy Dwight, "born April 1, 1811, ...He was a hardware merchant at New Haven, Connecticut, and manufacturer of tools (plane-irons, drawing knives, augers, etc.), at Seymour, Ct. (then Humphreysville), and also of coach lace, and afterward of cars at Chicago, Ill. Dwight, Benjamin W. History of the Descendants of John Dwight of Dedham, Massachusetts, Vol. 1. New York, NY : John f. Trow & Son, 1784, page 173.


J. B. Rose, circa 1853, "A mill for weaving coach lace, with some six operatives, owned by J. B. Rose." Field, David D. Centennial Address. Middletown, CT : William B. Casey, 1853, page 132.

New Haven, Connecticut

John Hale Booth 1861-1879 9 Wooster Street, lace weaver, 1880 -1893 listed as manufacturer changed to E. A. Booth. In the 1888 Dockham’s J. H. Booth was listed under the "woolen goods" subheading as manufacturing "...Coach laces and carriage trimmings, 20 hand looms..." Dockham’s 68.

E. A. Booth 1893-1894 changed to Booth Coach Lace.

Booth Coach Lace 1894-1898-1900.

Gotthilf, 1899, coach lace weaver. Price & Lee’s New Haven. 1899, page 656.

Charles Guyer 1850 age 39. Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine (Vol. 33 No. 2), page 148.

Benjamin Guyer 1850 age 17. Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine (Vol. 33 No. 2), page 148.

John P. Humaston 1840-71 State, home at 94 Olive--"Fringe, tassell and silk store," J. P. Humaston, No. 71 State Street, manufacturer of every variety of / Fringes, Cords, Tassels and Trimmings; / Among which may be found, / Ottoman, sofa, pulpit and Blind Trimmings, Plain / new, Bullion and Chenille Fringe; Float and Orris Lace; / Italian and American Sewing Silk of every colors and many / others articles usually found in a Variety Store,/ And Carriage Trimmings: / Fringe, Tufts, Tassels, Worsted, Cord by the gross or yard, and / many other things, which will be sold as low and on as good terms / as can be bought in New York or elsewhere, / orders from the country supplied at short notice. Patten’s New Haven Directory for the Year 1840 (New Haven, CT: William Storer, 1840), pages 51, 116.

John S. McCully, 1899, coach lace maker. Price & Lee’s New Haven. 1899, page 656.

James W. Newell, coach lace & fringe manufacturer, 3 Elm. Price & Lee’s New Haven. 1840, page 64.

Laban Pardee 1836 - 1858 changed to Charles H. Pardee

Charles H. Pardee, 1858 to about 1878, 98 Wooster Street, taken over by John Hale Booth.

John Pierson 1840 New Haven City Directory, 1840, page 69.

Isaac Sheads, 1850 age 33. Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine (Vol. 33 No. 2), page 149; A listing from the 7th Population Census of the US. of those natives of the Keystone State [PA] residing in New England.

Lawrenceburg, Indiana

Andrew Ray 1817-1824. came from Carlisle, Nicholas County, Kentucky. Insolvent Notice: Andrew Ray insolvent debtor having filed his petition to the Dearborn Circuit Court paying the benefit of the act of the General Assembly of the State of Indiana made for the relief of insolvent debtors, notice is therefore hereby given that the court will act on said petition at their Term on the second Monday in June next. James Dill Clerk April 6, 1822. The Oracle, Lawrenceburg, Indiana, June 1, 1822.

Wanted an apprentice to the Carriage Lace & Fringe Manufactory. Other branches of weaving will likewise be taught. Good encouragement as to clothing and education shall be given. One from 14 to 17 years of age would be preferred. Enquire at this office. Dec 11, 1824. Indiana Spectator, Lawrenceburg, Indiana.

Carlisle, Nicholas County, Kentucky

Andrew Ray 1817 from obituary of James M. Ray, Indianapolis News, February 23, 1881. Came from Baltimore, Maryland, moved to Lawrenceburg, Indiana.

Baltimore, Maryland

Thomas Carr 1835, lace weaver, Richmond Street near Howard

Flynn, Emrick and Murrill [James Flynn, John P. Emrich and James H. Murrill], 1855-1865, changed to separate machine manufacturers. Flynn & Emrich at 55 Holiday and Murrill & Keiser at 44 Holiday.

Flynn, Emrick and Murrill 1855-1859, 133 north Front

Flynn, Emrick and Murrill 1859-1864 manufacturers of machinery, coach lace 55 Holiday:

James Flynn 178east Monument, John P. Emrich 194 east Monument, James H. Murrill 89 Calvert. E.M. Cross & Co. Baltimore City Business Directory

Flynn, Emrick & Co. 1860 - Coach Lace Manufacturers $20,000 capital invested; used 4,000 lbs. Of worsted and 150 lbs. of silk & cotton valued at $7,500 used steam and hand motive power; employed 16 men, 7 women; paid the men $448 average per month and $56 for the women average per month; produced an unknown quantity of carriage trimmings valued at $18,000.6 R. G. Dun stated that by June of 1857 the company had been in business for four or five years and that the principals were industrious and ingenious. They were listed as coach lace manufacturers, sold to first rate houses for cash on delivery, and purchased their supplies from outside the city. In May of 1868, the business was listed as "Flynn and Emrick," and they were "machinists" at Holiday and Saratoga Streets. At that time a new shop was being built but was lost in a flood in August. The partnership purchased more property and rebuilt. The last report in September of 1876 gave them an estimated worth of $40,000. MD, Vol.. 4,Nno. 1066, page 313 &Vol. 11, page 157, R. G. Dun & Co., Collection, Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts.

John Gade 1801-1810 lace and fringe maker, Harrison Street.

Catherine Gade 1815-1831 changed to boarding house 18 Mercer Street

Catherine Gade 1815-1816, lace & fringe maker, 37 Harrison Street

Catherine Gade 1822-1823, widow, lace & fringe manufacture, NE corner of Second & Frederick. Catherine Gade 1827-1831, coach lace manufactory Mercer Street

John Gade 1835-1875

John Gade 1835-1849, lace and fringe maker, Gay street

John Gade 1853-1854, lace and fringe maker, North Street, dwelling 38 Holiday

John Gade 1858, 114 East Fayette home

John Gade 1869-1875, lace weaver 85e Pratt

Christopher Miller 1807-1819, coach lace and fringe, Charles street

John H. Miller, 1835-1837, coach lace, fringe cord & military trimmings manufactured, Charles street and 9 Light street.

Andrew Ray 1817 on Cove Street Baltimore City Directory came from New York moved to Carlisle, Nicholas County, Kentucky.

Boston, Massachusetts

Peter Bense 1805 lace weaver, Summer Street

Nathaniel Blake 1796. listed in the directory as a shopkeeper rather than a manufacture at No. 56 Cornkill.

Nathaniel Blake offers textiles, hairpowder and Coach and Chaise Laces, and other Trimmings... The Massachusetts Mercury, May 27, 1796. Collection of Paul Downing

Briggs & Crafts. 1837 exhibitors of very superior Coach Lace, A Silver Medal. First Exhibition and Fair of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association at Faneuil and Quincy Halls In the City of Boston, Sept. 18, 1837. Boston, MA : Dutton and Wentworth, 1837, page 54.

Francis Daniel Crafts son of Ebenezer, born in Roxbury, Massachusetts February 27, 1814. He resided in Roxbury. From 1836 to 1849 he was engaged in the saddlery hardware business, and in the manufacture of carriage-lace. Thte style of the firm was at first Shaw, Briggs & Crafts, their store being on Dock Square. Boston, and was succeeded in 1837 by that of Briggs & Crafts. On the withdrawal of Mr. Briggs in 1842, he continued alone under the style of F. D. Crafts, his store being located on Cornhill, and afterward on the corner of Dock Square and Exchange St., Boston. On the discovery of gold in California in 1849, he went there with the early pioneers by water, but died at San Francisco, soon after his arrival, January 23, 1850, he was not married. James Monroe & William Francis Crafts. The Crafts Family: A Genealogical and Biographical History of the Descendants of Griffin and Alice Craft, of Roxbury, Mass, 1630-1890. Northampton, MA : Gazette Printing Co., 1893, page 428.

John Bright 1795-1803 changed to upholster

John Bright 1798 at Orange Street

John Bright 1803 at 44 Marlborough Street

John Bright, Advertisement of John Bright, maker of Coach Lace, offering among a long list "Chaise Carpets." Massachusetts Mercury, December 12, 1800. Collection of Paul Downing

William Bright 1795 - 1803

William Bright at Middle Street in 1798 John and William Bright Just imported, and for sale. Beautiful crimson, blue and yellow silk and worsted, damask, crimson and green silk velvet - crimson green and yellow Harreteens - Chinese and Moreens - stipt’d, plain & figured Sattins - hair seating - yard wide Persia Carpets - Wilton & kid Wincester carpeting - bed ticks and looking glasses - by John and William Bright, At their Manufactory, No. 44, Marlborough-Street, Where the following articles are manufactured, viz. Bed-Laces; tassel & cords; hair-ribbons, superior quality. Generous allowance to those who purchase by wholesale. Upholsterers business carried on as usual. Boston, June 10, 1795 - Independent Chronicle and Universal Advertiser, No. 1525 October 22, 1795

John and William Bright, at their Coach Lace and Fringe Manufactory offer "A great variety of Coach, Chaise and Livery Laces and Fringes." Massachusetts Mercury, July 27, 1798. Collection of Paul Downing

F. D. Crafts shortly after 1837 and before 1849. See Briggs and Crafts.

F. H. Fairbanks, (also seen as Fairbanks & Co.)1846, agent and partner for the Clinton Co., CT. Fisher’s National Magazine and Industrial Record. Vol. III New York, NY : Redwood Fisher, 1846, page 172.

James H. Foster 1796-1798

James H. Foster, "Coach Lace, Broad and narrow laces for coaches and chaise, holders, bridle reins, fringes, best Wilton Chaise Carpets, &c. For sale at Jame H. Foster’s..." The Massachusetts Mercury, June 21, 1796. Collection of Paul Downing

James H. Foster, New Manufactory of Coach and Chaise Lace, Fringes, &c. James H. Foster, Respectfully informs his friends and the public, That he manufactures the following articles, viz.

Figured and plain broad lace,

ditto ditto half ditto

ditto ditto seaming do.

Broad and narrow chain do.

Round and flatt reins holders glass strings,

Coach and other fringes, tassels, & cords. And all kinds of Trimmings used for Coaches, and Chaise, either figured or plain... The above articles are constantly kept for sale. At No. 56, Marlboro Street; made in the best manner, and as cheap as at any place in town... The patronage of the public is solicited, and the smallest favors gratefully acknowledges. (10 w.) Massachusetts Mercury August 25, 1797. Collection of Paul Downing

Major Adino Paddock 1758-1776

Major Adino Paddock was the premier colonial coach manufacturer. A native of Boston, he began as a "Chaise-maker" in a shop near the Common in 1758, and the next year ran his first clearance sale by offering six second-hand chaises "under their value" to eliminate storage charges. Approval by the best judges of his "newly-built Post Chariot, Hanging on Steel Springs" inspired master Paddock in 1761 to undertake to finish any "coach, Chariot, or other carriage equal in fashion and goodness to the latest models from England, at the prime cost there, including one half the freight.’" This bid for the Yankee carriage trade brought him many orders for "Traveling Chairs and Town Coaches" from all over New England and Livery Lace" for servants as well. There are modern overtones in an advertisement of 1767 that he would "Take Old Chaises in part pay for New". And that he had "horse nets" for sale. Paddock’s business was extensive... he made carriages and sleighs of all kinds, he performed work for other Boston Chaise makers whose establishments were not large enough to undertake all operations, and he kept his sizable force of workmen busy building vehicles for sale up and down the New England coast. In 1774 this entrepreneur backed George Hamlin who drove a hackney coach to any place in Boston for a shilling a person, and allowed him to stand for hire in his coach yard at Long Acre. C. Bridenbaugh 90 MID

Adino Paddock, at his shop in Common Street, near the Granary, where all sorts of traveling and town carriages are made, sells livery lace of all colours, for servants and chaises; worsted reins, brass nails, and all sorts of chaise furniture, neats foot oil. Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter, April 21, 1763, April 28, 1763, May 5, 1763 and May 12, 1763. Collection of Paul Downing

Adino Paddock, "Chaise Linings, green and cloth coloured, laces to match ditto, chaise and harness furniture of all sorts, Wilton Carpeting, Worsted reins, green and cloth coloured, coach glasses of all sizes, to be sold as cheap as can be bought in town by Adino Paddock, At his shop in Long-Acre Common Street, Boston: Where the coach-making business is carried on in all its branches as usual, neat’s foot oil." Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter. June 20, 1771. Collection of Paul Downing

Adino Paddock, "A genteel Whiskey with Italian springs, and patent iron axle with double boxes, To be sold by Adino Paddock, in Long-Acre, Common Street, Boston. Who has also for sale a number of second-hand chaises, of different prices, and a variety of livery laces of all colours, suitable for chaises and servants cloathing." Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter, July 22, 1773. Collection of Paul Downing

Adino Paddock, At his shop opposite the Granery, in Common Street. Carries on the coach and chaise-making business, in all its branches; such as, chariots, post-chaises, phaetons, curricles, &c. As each part is finished under his immediate inspection, those who employ him may depend upon being served in the best manner and at the most reasonable rate - cheaper than any other province on the continent - carriages, wheels, iron-work, and harness repaired, with care and dispatch. At the above shop are sold, worsted runs by the yard, plain lace and livery-lace of all colours for chaises, and servants cloaths: neat’s foot oil. Said Paddock has always a number of second-hand chaises to dispose of, very cheap, and will take old chaises as part of pay for new." Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter. From May 15, 1766 to August 28, 1776. Collection of Paul Downing

Shaw, Briggs & Crafts. shortly before 1837. See Briggs & Crafts.

Clinton, Massachusetts

Clinton Manufacturing Company 1838-1857 sold to Wm. H. Horstmann,

Medway, Massachusetts

The coach lace business at Medway in 1833 was reported to produced twice as much coach lace as Marsh at Quincy and three-eighths more than than at Milford with the same manpower as at Milford. Louis McLane. Documents Relative to the Manufactures in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Duff Green, 1833: Reprint, New York: Economic Classics, 1969.

Royal Southwick about 1818-1824 started his business in company with Dean Walker, and then built a large factory next to his house utilizing water power from Chicken Brook. After starting his business, Southwick brought the Crowther Brothers over from England, and after Mr. Southwick removed to Lowell, the Crowthers continued the lace business in Medway. The coach lace business became a lesser part of the mill’s activity. Lace curtain trim and gimps were more generally manufactured. From a letter from Francis D. Donovan. Royal Southwick House, 19 Winthrop Street, Medway, MA 02053, July 14, 1988.

Royal Southwick, born at Uxbridge, September 9, 1785, married Direxa Claftin in 1826. Frederick William Coburn. History of Lowell and Its People. New York, NY : Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1920, page 173.

Dean Walker 1818-to about 1825 believed to have moved to the Baltimore area.

Alexander Wright 1820 engaged in Coach Lace making. Left Medway to become superintendent of a carpet factory. Frederick William Coburn. History of Lowell and Its People. New York, NY : Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1920, page 173; Cutter, William Richard. Historic Homes and Places and Genealogical and Personal....Memoirs. Vol. IV. New York, NY : Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1908, page 1603.

Milford, Massachusetts

Unknown name, 18??-1833 Coach lace business reported to produce three-eights less coach less than the Medway coach lace business with the same manpower. Louis McLane. Documents Relative to the Manufactures in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Duff Green, 1833: Reprint, New York: Economic Classics, 1969.

Quincy, Massachusetts

At the Marsh establishment from 1800-1820 the total number of weavers ranged from six and ten and was primarily women. From 1826-1827 their were 9 women and two men weavers. Nine weavers are recorded as being paid for coach lace in 1827-1828. At the height of the coach lace business in 1834-1835 10 women were employed as weavers and two men. Four men and thirteen women names appeared in the 1835-1836 records, for weaving coach lace. The number of weavers men and women varied each year, as did the amount of that each produced. Names appear, vanish and return, with family member’s names that were closing related to the Marshes making up most of the names: Spear, Nightengale, and Crane. In Louis McLane "Documents Relative to the Manufactures in the United States," published in Washington, D. C. in 1833 he reports that the Marsh coach lace factory produces half the amount of coach lace as the coach lace business at Medway, Massachusetts with the same manpower.

Spear and Sophia Arnold, 1826 appear as weavers although the amounts are small worked for Marsh family.

Mehitable Blanchard made in excess of $150.00 for the year 1826-1827 weaving laces. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.

James Edwards came from New Jersey in 1826, when he was twenty-nine years old and except for two years he wove coach lace for the Marshes until 1838. James Edwards was born in Edinburg, Scotland on September 15, 1797 and moved to Newark, New Jersey with his parents, Alexander (also a weaver) and Margaret Edwards shortly thereafter. He married three times, first to Harriet Amory (born in Ireland on February 24, 1807) and died in Quincy on May 18, 1833. James Edwards became one of the most valuable employees of the Marshes as he regularly worked at making coach lace. From 1827-1828, he received a total of $300.79 for his production of coach lace. Nancy Britton. Coach Lace: Industry, Production & Markets, University of Rhode Island, 1999. This amounts to the about the same amount of the yearly salary paid Elisha and Jonathan Marsh head of the manufactory. He became a member of the community along with future generations of Edwards. He was killed in 1863 by a falling derrick in the granite quarries. Sprague Collection, Genealogies of the Families of Braintree, MA 1640-1850, (Boston, MA: New England Historical Genealogical Society), record #1548, microfilm. And Edwards file, Quincy Historical Society.

Garrit Garranbrantz seems to have moved back and forth from Quincy to Newark as he is listed at various times in the Marsh accounts and the Newark directory and early newspaper. Wilson Marsh by Miriam N. Marsh and Sentinel of Freedom. Newark to Quincy is a distance of about 231 miles and we know from the 1822 advertisement in the Newark’s Sentinel of Freedom that the Marshes sought coach lace weavers for their manufactory."To Journeymen Coachlace--Weavers. Wanted immediately, at Wilson Marsh & Sons’s, Coach Lace Manufactory in Quincy, (near Boston, Massachusetts) one or two journeymen of industrious and steady habits, and good workmen, to whom good wages and prompt pay will be given. For further information, apply to Mr. David Smith, Merchant in Newark. Sentinel of Freedom, Newark, New Jersey, Nov. 12, 1822, no. 10, vol. xxvii.

Charles Hardwick first appears in the 1790s records weaving wool yardage and by 1810 was largely employed in weaving coach laces and some boot straps. Marsh Papers, Quincy Historical Society, 97.16.2, box 2, n.p. "Wilson Marsh & Son Acct Book" 1809-1814.

Delpha Hersy made $49.00 for lace weaving in the year 1826-1827. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.

Elizabeth Jewett made $90.33 for lace weaving in the year 1826-1827 and for the year 1839 $112.20. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.

Abigail Marsh one of triplets of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Savil-Marsh worked for the family sometime after 1826.

Ann Marsh (also called Nancy) remained unmarried and was the second child of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Savil-Marsh; she began weaving coach lace in 1811 at age twenty-seven. Marsh Papers, Quincy Historical Society, 64.52.J. Marsh’s genealogy. During that year Ann wove over 1,700 yards of a variety of laces including sixty-six yards of "silk lace," earning nearly $100.00 During 1813, she wove over twelve hundred fifty yards of lace, as well as three hundred thirty-eight yards of bootstraps and one hundred and five yards of webb, earning over $75.00. Similar yardages and wages received are entered for other weavers during the years of the business.

Charles Marsh was listed as weaving $5.00 worth of coach lace he was the son of Jonthan Marsh.

E. & J. Marsh 1828-1836 (Elisha and Jonathan Marsh)

Elisha Marsh the son of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Savil-Marsh was made a partner on June 17, 1811 and he was to receive three hundred dollars per year for his "personal labor." Elisha quit the business in 1837 and went to help his nephew George (Jonathan’s son) in a shoe or leather business. Elisha Marsh the eldest son of Wilson Marsh married a half sister Lucy and they had no children.

Jonathan Marsh the son of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Savil-Marsh joins the partnership on June 18, 1812 and formally in 1814. He had been working for the business for several years. The accounts show that he paid room and board, yet somehow managed to acquire enough cash that when an inventory was made upon his entry into the business, he paid the one-third to become a partner-$673.27. Marsh Papers, Quincy Historical Society 97.16.2,n.p.

Thomas Mayhew Marsh a son of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Savil-Marsh, produced $20.00 worth of lace. He wove for the firm in 1835-1836 and 1836-1837 he produced (not earned in wages) $151.14 and $240.00 respectively. Although he continued to be active for two successive years, his production dwindled to under $25.00 for each year. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.

Wilson Marsh 1797-???? name changed to Wilson Marsh and Son. Wilson Marsh was the founder and head of the manufactory was paid a yearly salary "To one years work," of $225.00 in 1809, and deductions were made from this account for lost time, rent of the house, etc. Wilson Marsh died in 1828.

Wilson Marsh and Son ????-???? (Wilson Marsh and his son Jonathan Marsh) name changed to Wilson Marsh and Sons.

Wilson Marsh and Sons ????-???? changed to E. & J. Marsh.

Abraham Merkel is believed to be the first coach lace weaver at the Marshes coming from Newark, New Jersey.

Mary Nightengale (related to the Marshes) was the most long term person and the most regular at making coach lace. Mary Nightengale worked for the Marshes starting in 1810 weaving silk fringe, broad, pasting, and seaming laces, and handle lace and only stopped when the Marshes closed the coach lace manufactory in 1838. Her lace weaving totaled $79.00 for the year 1826-1827 and for the year 1839 $104.78. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.

Sarah Penniman made in excess of $150.00 for the year 1826-1827 weaving laces. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.

Susanna Marsh-Savil one of triplets of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Marsh-Savil worked for the family after 1826.

Eliza Veazie made $125.86 for lace weaving in the year 1833. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.

Sarah Ann Vezie(Veazie)made $252.70 for lace weaving in the year 1826-1827. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.

Mahitable Walker made $90.33 for lace weaving in the year 1826-1827. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p. 8



William J. Wightman, 1844, Five pieces of silk coach lace. The patterns of workmanship were both very fine; and, the material being of silk, the general appearance is rich. These specimens are highly creditable to the manufacturer. Diploma. Fourth Exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association at Quincy Hall, In the City of Boston, September 16, 1844, page 148.

Caldwell, New Jersey

Bates, Douglas and Cochran, coach lace manufacturer (Philemon Bates10, Nathaniel Douglass9, Thomas Cochran) sometime before 1811 changed to Cochran and Bates

Bates, Douglass and Ray, coach lace manufacturer 1799-1800 changed to Andrew Ray. Coach Lace and Fringe Manufactory. The subscribers most respectfully inform their friends and the public, that they are now carrying on a manufactory of coach lace and fringes, nearly opposite the store of Bates and Douglas - where may be had, on the shortest notice, Coach and Chair mountings of any pattern or figure, silk, cotton, or thread cloak and shaw fringes; also, fringes and tassels of any color or pattern, for church or house furniture. As large sums of money are yearly sent abroad for the above articles, the utility of such a work in this country, is too evident to need any comments. The subscribers have a good stock on hand, and have engaged the best of workmen from Europe; and flatter themselves, from the already rapid sale of their goods, both in New York and the country, and by their steady application to business, to merit the esteem and patronage of a generous public, Orders from any part of the Continent, for the above articles forwarded to the Post Office at Newark, or sent directly to the factory, will be thankfully received, and executed with neatness and dispatch, at or below the New York prices. Bates, Douglass, and Ray. Caldwell, (New Jersey) Aug. 19, 1799 N. B. Wanted a quantity of good combing wool, for which a generous price will be given. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 3 No. 4 , Sept. 3, 1799, Vol. 3 No. 50, Sept. 10, 1799, Vol. 3 No. 51, Sept. 17, 1799.

Cochran and Bates coach lace manufacturer started March 5, 1811: The partnership of Bates, Douglass and Cochran, is this day dissolved by mutual consent. All persons indebted to them are desired to make immediate payment, and those having demands to present their accounts for settlement to Thomas Cochran or Philemon Bates, who are authorized to settle said concern.

Philemon Bates

Nathaniel Douglass, [went into the dry goods business]

Thomas Cochran,

N. B. The manufacturing of Coach Lace and fringe, will be continued under the firm of Cochran and Bates, who have on hand a handsome assortment, which they will sell at the lowest prices, and on liberal terms. All orders from a distance, and in particular from former customers, will be thankfully received and executed with the greatest possible dispatch by Thomas Cochran, Philemon Bates, Caldwell, Feb. 20, 1811. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 15 No. 24, March 5, 1811.

Andrew Ray, coach lace manufacturer, 1800-1805. Coach Lace and Fringe Manufactory, The co-partnership of Bates, Douglass and Ray in the coach, lace and fringe manufactory, is this day dissolved by mutual consent. Bates & Douglass, Andrew Ray. The business in the future will be carried on by Andrew Ray, where may be had, as usual, coach lace, fringes and tassels of all kinds, on the shortest notice. Caldwell, Oct. 13, 1800. N. B. Mr. Ray is authorized to receive the debts of the company. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 5 No. 6-11, Nov. 4, 1800, Dec. 2, 1800, Dec. 9, 1800. moved to Newark in 1803.

Camden, New Jersey

John A. Raab 1905-1908, 1275 Mechanic--produced Coach Lace, Tassels, Silkcord on three narrow hand looms and he sold direct. Dockhams, 1905, 174 & 1907, 180. Collection, Baker Library, Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration. Soldiers Field, Boston, Massachusetts 02163

Elizabeth, New Jersey

John P. Cree, 1850--(son of Jonathan and Mary Pierson Cree) born October 21, 1813 in Elizabeth, NJ--died May 11, 1869 at 37 Scott Place, NJ. From Cree Family of Elizabeth, New Jersey by Gary L. Mahier, c 1998.

John P. Cree, 1869 (born 1849-????, son of John P. Cree and Jane E. Melvin-Cree, took over his father’s business when he died in 1869 of coach lace weaver. From Cree Family of Elizabeth, New Jersey by Gary L. Mahier, c 1998.

Jersey City, New Jersey

John Ayres, 90 Montgomery Street, coach lace manufacturer, (no directories before 1849) 1849-1854.

New Brunswick, New Jersey

James Clark, Peace Street, coach lace manufacturer, 1850-1851

Newark, New Jersey11

From the report of the Committee of Commerce and Manufactures made to Congress in 1816 on the year 1815.

"At Newark, New Jersey, a manufacturer of coach lace employed at this time about twenty hands. His supply of "floss silk" (raw silk freed from the natural gum). Was obtained from Connecticut, and was found to be both in strength and luster "much superior to the best imported silk." The silk of Connecticut had been previously made chiefly into sewings, and the raw silk used for coach lace, tassels, and fringe, had been principally imported at an average cost of six dollars per pond, which was increased by the war to thirty dollars per pond. From this time forward, large quantities of raw silk were also required for the manufacture of Tusean braid for hats."12

The first formal census taken by Newark in 1826 reported 36 coach lace weavers.13

In 1830, 51 coach-lace weavers were reported in Essex county Newark, New Jersey and by 1835, 112 coach lace weavers were employed with annual product of $80,000. The number of manufactories employing the 121 coach lace weavers was three:14 [Christopher C. Barnett, Thomas Lawrence, and William Stevens] The last known coach lace weaver listed in the Newark, New Jersey city directories was Isaac Tompkins in 1864.

Abner W. Allen, 1836-1837, 118 Plane

Henry Baldwin, 1835-1841, 19 Ward, coach lace weaver :

J. Y. Baldwin and Company, 1811, dry goods merchant: : The subscriber have just received from York (England) a consignment of coach lace trimmings &c. very elegant, and entire new patterns. Also one box of webbings and whip thongs, which they offer at a reduced price for cash or good paper on 90 days credit. They will be found an object really worthy the attention of coach maker and trimmers ... other dry goods, John Y. Baldwin & Co., Newark Jan. 1, 1811. Sentinel of Freedom, Vol. 15 No. 15, Jan. 1811.

Wine, Coach Lace, Webbings and Thongs, a consignment just received, and for sale by J. Y. Baldwin & Co. July 16, 1811. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 15 No. 43 (actual No. 771), July 16, 1811.

Christopher C. Barnett, 1835-1857, Ward, coach lace manufacture : R. G. Dun reports that C. C. Barnett had "careless habits, unkempt" on February 18, 1847 and that in April 1853 he was "sold out by the sheriff." NJ, Vol. 20, page 319, R. G. Dun & Co., Collection, Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts 02163

W. G. Barnet, 26 Centre took out a patent for a coach lace loom on November 18, 1825. To Coach-Makers. The subscriber would respectfully invite the Coach-Makers and his friends in general to call at his manufactory, opposite the Post Office, in Broad Street, and view a few specimens of PLUSH

COACH-LACE. A new and splendid article much admired by the Coach-Makers of Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. For the exclusive manufacture of which, the subscriber has obtained Letters Patent from the United States. Two apprentices wanted immediately to the Coach-Lace and Fringe Making business. Wm. G. Barnet. Newark, January 24, 1826. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 30 No. 20, January 31, 1826.

George Carlock, 1835-1838, 152 Plane, coach lace weaver; moved to Bridgeport, Connecticut.

James Crane 1836-1837 lace weaver

Alexander Douglas, 1836-1837, 17 Ward; born March 19, 1808-died Jan. 9, 1875 in Newark, New Jersey. Married Catharine Hull the daughter of Marville Hull coach lace weaver. From Marion Walter

Archibald Dunning,

Michael Erb, 1841-1862, 37 River Street, near the Railroad Depot - wholesale and retail Manufacturer of Coach Lace, Fringes and Tassels. changed to curled hair

Michael Erb, 17 Broad, 1841

Michael Erb, 19 Ward, 1844-1849

Michael Erb, 36 River 1853

Garret Garrabrants, 1835-1866, 125 Market Street, and 152 Plane, (1866 at 6 Elm Street) coach lace weaver and coach lace manufacture (mentioned as being a coach lace weaver for Wilson Marsh of Massachusetts before 1835 name also spelled Garrit Garrabrants): [G. Garrabrants, Informs those whom he supplies with the Centinel, that his year for settlement expires the third of December next, at which time he wishes all indebted to be ready to make payment. Those whose accounts have stood more than one year must not expect further indulgence. November 12, 1816. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 21 No. 11, Nov. 26, 1816.

Garret N. Garrabrant, and Garrabrant A. Garrabrants. vs. Daniel S. Sigler. Fi. Fa. De bonis et terris. By virtue of the above stated writ offi. Fa. To me directed, I have levied on all the lands and tenements of the defendant, situated in the Township of Bloomfield, which property I shall expose to sale, at public vendue, at the Court House in the Town of Newark, on the 18th day of April next, between hours of 12 and 5 o’clock in the afternoon. Nathan Squier Sheriff February 18, 1817. Sentinel of Freedom. February 18, 1817.

Frederick Gruet, 1839-1860, 30 Hamilton, fringe and tassel mfr

John D. Hayes, 1835 - 1862, 173 Mulberry, coach lace weaver

John D. Hayes, moved to 2 Greenwich