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Carriage Monthly April 1904 pages 145-152.

The accompanying brief sketches of the lives of a few of the more prominent carriage draftsmen of the United States, who have done so much to make the carriage building industry what it is, will be a matter of both general and special interest. These short biographies should teach a valuable lesson to all carriage mechanics as showing what is possible to those who enter the race of life with determination to win. It is to be noticed that many of the draftsmen pursued a course of study in the Technical School for Drafting. Even after years of practical experience in the leading shops of the United States and Europe, they did not consider their preparation complete until they had availed themselves of the opportunities there presented. This is a strong recommendation of and for the school, and the carriage builders who have been supporting it so many years will no doubt feel that their efforts have been appreciated by the best workmen in the craft. Another feature worth mentioning is that the draftsmen herein noted traveled from city to city, and many of them from country to country, working in the various shops. The reason for this, no doubt, is understood by most readers. The motive of the draftsmen was to become practically familiar with the methods of carriage building in different countries and at different places. They are the genuine journeymen of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The term "journeymen" was given to the early craftsmen who journeyed from place to place, and our modern draftsmen have earned the title in an especial manner. They have gathered the experience of many places, have seen many styles, and have acquired a fund of knowledge and experience, which has enabled them to do the highest class of work.

Albert Dupont, (born 1827- retired 1892) who is spoken of as the father of carriage designing in France, was born in 1827. He learned wagon making, and went to Paris in 1848, became proficient in body making, and was engaged by Binder Bros., the best known builders at that time. In the evenings he studied body making with an equally industrious associate. He continued body making until 1863, when he took charge of his father's atelier, where he continued to design until 1892. He attained distinction in his vocation, and was regarded as a high authority.

Mr. Dupont is an honorary member of the C. B. N. A., and also of the Institute of British Carriage Manufacturers. His reputation is worldwide. Many of the craftsmen have studied under Dupont, who was a genius in his way and possessed the valuable faculty of being able to impart his ideas and convey instruction. Many of the draftsmen who have achieved distinction on this side were wise enough to take advantage of an opportunity to profit by his unrivaled instruction.

Mr. Dupont not only instructed, but he imparted an enthusiasm and love of the art of drafting for art's sake, which is more valuable than instruction. It is for this reason that the account of Albert Dupont is given, though he was never a draftsman in America. Albert Dupont lives in the work of his students.

Herman Stahmer, (born May 8, 1857-died March 23, 1894) formerly draftsman with Brewster & Co., New York, was born at College Point, New York, May 8, 1857; died Friday, March 23, 1894, in the thirty seventh year of his age. When about nineteen years of age he was an assistant in the drafting room, and on the death of the chief draftsman was promoted to his place. During his connection with Brewster & Co. he was permitted to attend Albert Dupont's Paris drawing school for three months. What he learned in this school served him well, and he applied the knowledge there acquired to the immediate advantage of his employers. Mr. Stahmer went to Europe four times in all for the further study of drafting, visiting Paris, cities in Switzerland, Vienna, Budapest, Berlin, Hamburg, Amsterdam, Brussels and London. Mr. Stahmer was original, did not copy after others and did exceedingly tasty and artistic work. The work exhibited by Brewster & Co. in Paris, 1879, and at the Columbian World's Fair, in 1893, was of his designing, and was admired by the United States and foreign carriage builders.

F. A. Goetz, (born 1842) Brooklyn, New York, formerly draftsman with Brewster & Co., was born in Würtemburg, Germany, sixty two years ago. He learned the trade of carriage building in his father's shop, starting out in the world in 1863, first going to Vienna, Austria; from thence to Munich, Bavaria, and from that city to Paris, where he acquired that intimate knowledge and skill which was the basis of his reputation.

He attended all the lectures given at that time by Henry Zablot, an expert in carriage building art. Returning to Germany, he became a prominent designer for awhile in the carriage establishment of Mengelbier. After a short stay he came to New York in 1868 and entered the service of Brewster & Co., Broome street, and remained in their employ until March, 1897, when he retired from active work.

George R. Cady, (born in Columbia, New York) draftsman and designer for Henry Hooker & Co., New Haven, Connecticut, was born in Columbia County, New York. He learned his trade in Hudson, New York, and drifted to Bridgeport, Connecticut, and from there to New Haven. He became associated with the late W. H. Cooper, who was at that time a body maker. Mr. Cooper took special interest in the young draftsman, and under his kindly guidance made considerable progress. In 1887 he became draftsman with Henry Hooker & Co., and has held this position since that time, and has built up a reputation as a most able designer of fine and stylish work.

Mr. Cady is a thorough body maker, and has achieved his high place by reason of close application to work. He possesses originality, as his designs show, and has made the subject of designing and construction his earnest study from his earliest connection with the industry. He enjoys the esteem and good will of the firm with which he is associated. The high standard of the work of Henry Hooker & Co. is in no small degree due to the skill, originality and enthusiastic devotion of this draftsman.

Martin Gabel, (born October 24, 1857-died June 11, 1900) formerly draftsman for James Cunningham, Son & Co., Rochester, New York, was born in Mainz, Germany, October 24, 1857, and died June I, 1901. He came to the United States when fourteen years of age, learning his trade with Brewster & Co., of New York, where he remained until 1877, and studied drafting in his spare hours. Later he engaged with James Gray & Co., of New York City, and by that time had developed the art of a draftsman and soon after engaged with Holcomb Bros., New Haven, Connecticut.

He next engaged with J. Curley, Brooklyn, New York, and soon after found an opportunity with James Cunningham, Son & Co., Rochester, New York, where he was engaged as designer and superintendent of construction. He filled this position acceptably for ten years, and after that became a partner in the firm of Meyers & Schlechter. Upon the dissolution of that firm he returned to Cunningham, Son & Co., and remained until his death.

Adolphus Muller (born 1839-died March 8, 1882) was born in Stuttgart, Würtemburg, Germany, in 1839, and died in New York City, March 8, 1882, at the age of forty three years. He was regarded as the "father of carriage designing" in this country. He arrived in New York City in 1862, and obtained employment as book keeper, salesman and draftsman with Brewster & Baldwin. In 1857 he established himself as a general draftsman for the carriage trade, and designed fashion plates for The Coach Makers' International Journal, later the Carriage Monthly and the Hub, of New York. His work represented the very latest styles and designs.

An unfortunate venture into which he entered was the Carriage Makers' Lithographic Journal, which was considered a model of excellence, but, for commercial reasons, it failed. Mr. Muller exerted a great influence on the trade through the trade journals by his originality in designing attractive and specially made styles.

Charles Hildebrand, (born Dec. 12, 1826 in Pulsnitz, Saxony) an old time draftsman, who retired some years ago, was born in Pulsnitz, Saxony, Germany, December 12, 1826. He learned his trade with his father, and started out in 1844; working at Breslau, Berlin, Munser, Cologne and Frankfurt. He returned to Saxony in 1846, and worked for Herr Schrumpf, carriage builder to the royal Saxon court. Here he remained four years. He came to the United States October 18, 1850, and engaged with Baldwin & Thomas, Newark, New Jersey, remaining with that firm until March 1, 1853.

Mr. Hildebrand then proceeded to New Haven and engaged with Henry Killam & Co., working there for a short time as body maker, when he was promoted to the position of draftsman and foreman in July, 1853. He remained in this important position for thirty years. Upon the completion of this period he retired, but finding the retirement from active life burdensome, engaged with James Cunningham, Son & Co., as superintendent. He next accepted a position with Cruttenden & Co., New Haven, Connecticut, and held that position nine years, which completed sixty seven years of active life. He then felt entitled to retirement, but is still hale and hearty in his seventy eighth year.

Charles A. Francis, (born London, Canada, January 9, 1852) superintendent and draftsman of the Studebaker Bros. Mfg. Co., South Bend, Indiana, was born in London, Canada, January 9. 1852, where he served a four years' apprenticeship. After completing his term he went to Rochester, New York, and worked for James Cunningham, Son & Co. on coach bodies. He then started on a tour of the country, working his way from shop to shop. His first permanent position was with Studebaker Bros. Mfg. Co., in 1873, where he remained for several years in the body shops. He then went to St. Louis, remaining one year, working from his own designs, chiefly for heavy work. He next accepted a position in Brown & Pray's shop, New York City, where he remained three years, and then removed to Richmond, Virginia, and took the position of superintendent with George A. Ainslie & Son. After remaining there some time, he accepted the position as draftsman with Henry Killam & Co., New Haven, Connecticut, remaining there three years. His reputation as a draftsman called him to South Bend, Indiana, where he became superintendent and draftsman, which position he has since filled with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of the great firm.

Paul W. Steinbeck, (born July 9, 1865 at College Point, New York) draftsman for the New Haven (Connecticut.) Carriage Co., was born at College Point, New York, July 9, 1865. He began work with Brewster & Co. at the age of fifteen, and soon after began the study of drafting under the late H. F. Stahmer. He remained five years, and laid a good foundation. At the age of twenty he engaged with R. M. Bing ham & Co., Rome, New York, and did their entire drafting. In his spare time he sold work for the company from Maine to Georgia, constantly pursuing his studies in drafting.

At the end of this period he was engaged by H. H. Babcock & Co., and later by Fenton & Dunn, Holyoke, Massachusetts. In 1893 he engaged with the New Haven Carriage Co., where he is still employed. Mr. Steinbeck is considered an expert in copying as well as in originating, which his work shows.

M. Galle, designer and superintendent with the Willoughby Co., Utica, New York, was born in Dresden, Germany, and learned his trade with his father, who was an artistic coach builder. He was next engaged with Hoercher & Co., Hamburg, Germany, as chief designer, there organizing a drafting class and conducting it four years. After that he came to the United States and entered the employ of Brewster & Co. He was next engaged by R. M. Bingham & Co. as assistant draftsman.

Mr. Galle received the first prize for the best design of brougham draft offered by the C. B. N. A. at the Chicago convention, 1890. He subsequently filled the position of designer and superintendent with Henry Killam & Co., Brewster & Co. and J. Curley, Brooklyn, New York. In 1892 he was appointed instructor in chief to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Prof. John D. Gribbon in the Technical School for Carriage Drafting, and retained this position until the appointment of Andrew F. Johnson, the present incumbent. Mr. Galle's life has been a busy one, and he is among the most advanced carriage designers.

George E. Beck, (born 1858, Bridgeport, Connecticut) draftsman and superintendent of construction with A. T. Demarest, New Haven, Connecticut, was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 1858. He went to New Haven in 1850 and served his apprenticeship with Dibble & Cooper Co. In 1879 he received instruction from Kean & Lines in the construction of heavy work. He was also employed for some time by Henry Killam & Co., and was one of the best body makers. In June, 1881, he was employed by the above company, and on the death of J. P. Barker was advanced to the position of foreman and draftsman, which position he still fills.


Edward Comby, (born 1822, in Tonlouse, France) formerly draftsman for W. D. Rogers, Son & Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was born in Toulouse, France, in 1822. He came to the United States in 1847, and was employed by George W. Watson, then conducting business at Thirteenth and Parrish streets, in that city. He filled this position until 1857, then went with Beckhaus & Allgeier, where he remained until 1865. His third change was to W. D. Rogers as body maker. In 1868 he was promoted to the position of draftsman and foreman in that establishment, remaining until 1893, when he retired.

Mr. Comby was widely recognized as an expert body maker, and stood high in the estimation of his fellow-craftsmen. He drew all his designs on the blackboard, and made all the working drafts for about 18 body makers, besides attending to the suspension of all the carriage work, much of which was specially ordered. Mr. Comby made many improvements in body construction, and all his drafts were clean and correct in every detail.

W. P. Fest, (born February 7, 1845, Stuttgart, Wurtemberg, Germany) San Francisco, California, draftsman with Studebaker Bros. Co. of San Francisco, California, was born in Stuttgart, Würtemburg, Germany, February 7, 1845. In 1865 he came to the United States, and was promptly employed by Brewster & Baldwin, of New York City, as carriage draftsman. In 1871 he was employed by Bradley, Pray & Co., New Haven, Connecticut. In 1874 he went to Chicago, where he remained three years.

On February 1, 1878, he was engaged by the Studebaker Bros. Mfg. Co., where he remained for four and a half years, and subsequently engaged with James Cunningham, Son & Co., Rochester, New York, for one year. His next engagement was with J. B. Brewster & Co., with whom he remained until 1895, when he returned to the great carriage plant at Rochester. Since then he has held various other positions, being engaged for some time by H. H. Babcock Co., Watertown, New York.

G. M. Chalfant, (born 1849 Belmont Co., Ohio) draftsman for the Cortland (New York) Wagon Co., was born in Belmont County, Ohio, in 1849. He was apprenticed to Shoot & Brown, Birmingham, Iowa, and in July, 1870, engaged with E. M. Miller & Co., Quincy, Illinois. From thence he went to Indianapolis, and later to New Haven, Connecticut, and entered the employ o£ Durham & Wooster, where he remained two years under instruction, for which he paid one third his wages.

After completing his instruction he returned to Indianapolis. About the time of the 1873 panic he was thrown out of work temporarily, but journeyed to Coldwater, Michigan; thence to Ravenna, Ohio; to Madison City, Indiana; next to Portland, Maine, and, after spending some time there, went South to Athens, Georgia. After learning Southern styles, he journeyed to St. Louis, Missiouri. His next engagement was in South Bend, Indiana; shortly afterward at Detroit, Michigan, then Watertown, New York, turning up later on at New Haven, Connecticut. In the three last named cities he had charge of drafting and construction. Soon after he found an opportunity to engage with the Cortland (New York) Wagon Co., and took charge of the machine department there; also doing the drafting work. He is still engaged with this company.

O. H. Schildback, (born June 2, 1865, New York City) draftsman with H. H. Babcock Co., Watertown, New York, was born in New York City, June 2, 1865. In 1881, after a pretty thorough course of instruction in decorative painting and in technical lines, he began coach body building with Healey & Co., New York City, and continued in the same establishment until 1886. During that time he studied carriage drafting, and also took a course of study in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. After thorough preparation, he visited Europe in the interests of his profession, and upon his departure his employers and shopmates presented him with a gold watch and chain.

Mr. Schildback also received $100 from the trustees of the Technical School and a gift of $50 from J. W. Britton. While in Europe he pursued his studies with great success, and on his return to the United States entered the employ of Studebaker Bros. Mfg: Co., and later on accepted a position with H. H. Babcock Co. Mr. Schildback has a reputation for original work which extends throughout the United States. He has familiarized himself with carriage drafting on both sides of the Atlantic.

C. H. Vorhes, (born 1852, Detroit, Michigan) superintendent and draftsman with the La Porte (Indiana) Carriage Co., was born near Detroit, Michigan, in 1852. He became an apprentice December 7, 1871, and remained nine years. Instead of going West, as was then the custom among young men, he went to New York, and was engaged by Brewster & Co., and later on by Charles S. Caffrey Co., Camden, New Jersey.

He also was employed by Holcomb Bros. and Henry Killam & Co., New Haven, Connecticut. From 1883 to 1886 he held the position of draftsman and superintendent in the establishment of L. Glesenkamp, Sons & Co., Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. He also worked for the Kalamazoo Buggy Co. and for C. R. & J. C. Wilson, Detroit, Michigan. In September, 1896, he was engaged with the La Porte Carriage Co. as superintendent and draftsman, and is still there.

Frank E. Pease, (born March 29, 1863) of S. C. Pease & Sons, Merrimac, Massachusetts, was born March 29, 1863, in West Amesbury, now Merrimac, Massachusetts. He served as an apprentice with F. H. Cram as body maker, and completed his apprenticeship in his father's factory. He then attended the Technical School in New York, and received the highest award given to any scholar after attending the school one year.

Mr. Pease was also awarded several prizes for carriage drawings by the Carriage Builder's National Association. On his return to Merrimac he entered the service of S. C. Pease & Son as draftsman and foreman of the body shop and was admitted to the firm in 1883. He is also a prominent member of the Carriage Builder's National Association. He attained a high position, among carriage draftsmen, and his work is widely known and highly appreciated,

D. G. McDiarmid,(born February 24, 1856, Napan, New Brunswick) superintendent and draftsman for C. P. Kimball & Co., Chicago, Illinois, was born February 24, 1856. at Napan, New Brunswick, Canada, At fourteen years of age he apprenticed himself to William Simpson, carriage builder at Chatham, New Brunswick, and served four years. He also was employed for eighteen months at New Castle, New Brunswick, and next worked in Quebec, Montreal, Kingston and other places, reaching Toronto in 1878, where he worked for William Dickson, studying drafting in the evenings from The CARRIAGE MONTHLY.

In 1880 he went to Chicago and entered the employ of P. L. Smith & Co., and also worked for the Studebaker Bros. Mfg. Co. His last move was to C. P., Kimball & Co., where he has been since 1885.

Paul C. Langner, (born 1862, Germany) draftsman with Flandrau & Co., New York City, was born forty two years ago in Eastern Prussia, Germany. He. entered a body building shop at the age of fourteen years, and at the same time began the study of carriage drafting. After serving his time he went to Leipsic, Saxony; thence to Strasburg, and down the river Rhine to Düsseldorf, acquiring a journeyman's knowledge in the various shops. He finally arrived at Münster, and worked in the different, establishments of that city.

Mr. Langner arrived in New York in 1885, and worked in the various carriage plants of that city. His next step was to enter the Technical School, where he studied for four years, and then became draftsman for Flandrau & Co. In 1900 he visited the Paris Exposition to further his knowledge of carriage drafting, and while abroad visited the prominent European carriage centers.

John B, Richards, (born March, 1861, New Haven, Connecticut) foreman of construction and draftsman for Hassett & Hodge, Amesbury, Massachusetts, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, in March, 1861, and learned his trade in that city. He was employed on heavy work from 1879 to 1886, when he became foreman and draftsman for the Moore & Watson Carriage Wood Works, which position he held until the plant consolidated with Seabrook & Smith as the Seabrook & Smith Carriage Co.

Mr. Richards became a partner in this company and held the position of superintendent and draftsman until 1900, when he accepted the position of superintendent of the Automobile Co. of America, Jersey City, New Jersey. Later on he engaged with the Fisher Motor Vehicle Co., Hoboken, New Jersey, and lastly with Hassett & Hodge, Amesbury, Massachusetts, with whom he is now engaged.

Frederick Fudala, (born 1850, Bela, Hungary) draftsman and foreman of construction for W. D. Rogers, Son & Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was born in 1850, at Bela, Hungary. He started as an apprentice at twelve years of age, and completed his trade at eighteen years, in 1858, and started out in the world, His first experience was at Budapest, where he worked in the best shops in that city. From thence he went to Vienna. Austria; from there to Warsaw, Russia, and back to Munich, Germany, in 1876. After working awhile in Munich, he went to Paris, and, after remaining in Paris awhile, went to London, where he worked for one year for Slatterly & Son.

After learning the tricks of the trade in London, he returned to Paris, working for Desouches, Chandon and Binder Bros. until 1882, when he came to the United States. He located in Philadelphia, and worked for several well known builders. He then visited New Haven, and spent some time in the best carriage shops there, returning to Philadelphia in 1887. In 1891 he took the position of draftsman and foreman of construction with W. D. Rogers, Son & Co.

Walter C. Yelton, (born Oct. 10, 1868, Butler, Pendleton Co., Kentucky) superintendent and draftsman with J. M. Quinby & . Co., Newark, New Jersey, was born October 10, 1886, in Butler, Pendleton County, Kentucky. At the age of fifteen he removed to Oneida, New York, and learned body making in the shops of J. L. Spencer & Co. He remained here three and a half years. The shops were burned down, and he engaged with R. M. Bingham, Rome New. York. From there he went to the Oneida Carriage Works, and then to the Cortland Wagon Co.

In 1892 he became a member of the corresponding class of the Technical School, and in the following year attended both day and night classes, graduating with honors in both. In July, 1895, he became an assistant in the carriage plant of J. M. Quinby & Co., Newark, New Jersey, and on the death of the superintendent and draftsman, in 1898, was promoted to his position, which he still retains.

A. Gravel, (born, Montreal, Quebec) draftsman for Herman Brunn, Buffalo, New York, was born in Montreal, Canada, where he learned coach building. He came to the United States in 1887, and found employment in the shops of Holcomb Bros., New Haven, Connecticut. He was also employed in the same city by B. Manville & Co. for two years, and by the New Haven Carriage Co. one year. He went to New York and secured employment with Brewster & Co., where he remained one year and six months. Returning to Canada, he became foreman and draftsman for B. Ledoux, Montreal. Later he returned to Brooklyn, and served two years in the carriage shops of J. Curley: then back to New Haven, serving two years in the shops of Henry I Hooker & Co., and still later attending the Technical School for a short period. During the past three years Mr. Gravel has been employed by H. Brunn, Buffalo, New York.

Frank Burmeister, (born February 8, 1856, Munster, Germany) draftsman with Charles S. Caffrey Co., Camden, New Jersey was, born February 8, 1856, at Münster, Germany, and learned his trade in his father's shop. He studied drafting for two years' under Professor Haneman in one of the schools of Münster, and later worked in several of the principal carriage building centers of Europe, among them Düsseldorf, Cologne, Aix la Chapelle and Berlin, until 1883. The next year he started for the United States and engaged with Charles S. Caffrey Co.; becoming the successor of H. H. Marshall as draftsman and foreman. He has held that position ever since. The work produced in this establishment speaks well for the skill, originality and good taste of Frank Burmeister.

Ernest Cramer, (born 1857, Germany) foreman of construction and draftsman for Samuel K. Page, New Haven, Connecticut, was born in Germany in 1857. He learned the trade of wood worker, and found employment, in many shops in Germany. He came to America in 1882, with many years of thorough and practical experience to his credit. He found employment readily, and in order to familiarize himself with carriage building methods went from shop to shop in the various cities of the country, East and West.

He did this more to broaden his education and familiarize himself with American methods than for mere employment. After having made a pretty thorough tour of the country in this way, he located permanently in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1888, and worked in the best shops of that city. In 1898 he entered the establishment of S. K. Pageand took charge of the wood and blacksmith shops, which position he has held ever since.

Ira Teeter, draftsman and general superintendent of the Watertown (New York) Carriage Co., was apprenticed to a carriage builder, at White House, Pennsylvania, in his thirteenth year. He put in a portion of his apprenticeship period at Lebanon, Pennsylvania and Plainfield, New Jersey. His first work in drafting was in heavy work, with D. B. Dunham, Rahway, New Jersey, when he was only nineteen years of age.

Later on he became foreman of the Fitzgibbon & Crisp Carriage Co., Trenton, New Jersey and, after serving; for some time, then engaged with B. Manville &, Co., New Haven, Connecticut. Upon terminating his arrangements with this company, he took charge of the body shop of R. M. Bingham, Rome, New York, where he remained six years. He was then engaged by H. H. Babcock Co. as draftsman and general superintendent, and in 1889 accepted a similar position with the Watertown (New York) Carriage Co. Mr. Teeter is well known for originality and taste in his work.

J. T. Davies, foreman of construction and draftsman for the Crane & Breed, Mfg. Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in May, 1860, and learned his trade with Cooling Bros., Wilmington, Delaware. Later he worked in a number of small shops, engaging finally with Charles S, Caffrey Co., Camden, New Jersey, where he remained about three years.

He then went to New Hayen. Connecticut, and worked in the shops of William Johnson, Henry Killam Co. and M. Armstrong & Co., for seven years. Later on he worked with the United States Carriage Co., Columbus, Ohio; James Goold Co., Albany, New York; A. J. Joyce & Co., Washington; D. C.. and James Cunningham, Son & Co. Rochester, New York. He took charge of the hearse department of the Crane & Breed Mfg. Co. in 1899. He reorganized that department, and is still with them,

J. R. Way, (born Dec. 4, 1860, North Carolina) draftsman and foreman for the George N. Pierce Co., Buffalo, New York, automobile builders, was born in North Carolina on December 4, 1860. At the age of eighteen years he went to Carthage and learned the trade of body carriage making with the Union Body Co., where he served three years. He came North and entered the employ of F. T. Clymer, Wilmington, Del., and in 1884 worked for Gregg & Bowe, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He then returned to Carthage, North Carolina, and worked for Tyson & Jones for awhile, but again retraced his steps northward and worked for William Johnson, and later for Henry Hooker & Co., New Haven, Connecticut.

Mr. Way then went to Cincinnati, St, Louis, Chicago and finally landed in San Francisco. Later on he turned up in Galveston, Texas, and, after a stay there, returned to New York and worked for Brewster & Co. and attended the Technical School for two years. He next worked for James Cunningham, Son & Co.; then as draftsman and foreman for H. Brunn, Buffalo, New York, and is now engaged with the George N. Pierce Co., Buffalo, New York, in the same capacity,

W. R. Johnston, (born July 28, 1866, Browmansville, Ontario) draftsman for the Columbus (Ohio) Buggy Co.. was born in Bownmansville, Ontario, Canada, July 28, 1866. He was apprenticed to the Morris, Carriage Co. of that place, and after completing his, apprenticeship entered the service of C. R. & J. C, Wilson, Detroit, Michigan. Here he remained two years, making excellent use of his time in acquiring a knowledge of drafting.

Mr. Johnston next entered the service of the Prouty & Glass Carriage Co., Wayne, Michigan, and from thence went to the Columbus (Ohio,) Buggy Co. as body maker. One year after he decided to take a day course of one year under Professor Gribbon, and, after having done so, returned to the Columbus Buggy Co. and was placed in an advanced position, which he has since filled to the entire satisfaction of the company,

J. Lawrence Hill, (born 1874, England) assistant draftsman for James Cunningham, Son & Co., Rochester, New York, was born in England, in 1874. When twelve years of age his parents immigrated to New Zealand. He became an apprentice in the establishment of James Greer, Auckland, New Zealand, for five years, After learning his trade he went as an improver with Gee & Potter, Auckland, in the meantime attending drawing school and following The CARRIAGE MONTHLY. He sailed for San Francisco about six years ago and engaged with O'Brien & Sons, of that city, attending the Lincoln School five evenings in the week, and about the same time he entered the corresponding class of the New York Technical School.

In 1899 he was employed by Brewster & Co., New York City. After a short time he took both day and evening instruction in the Technical School, and at the close of the 1902 sessions graduated with honors. His next step was his tour around the world. While in England he attended the classes at the Polytechnic Institute. After passing through Europe, he returned to Melbourne, Australia, and worked awhile for Cousins & Atkins, and built the first automobile body ever built in New Zealand. Returning to the United States by way of Canada. he reached New Haven. Connecticut and was employed in the shops of Henry Hooker & Co., and later with the George N. Pierce Co., Buffalo, New York. He is now employed by James Cunningham, Son & Co. as assistant draftsman.

D. C. MacPherson, (died October, 1897) formerly draftsman for E. N. Heney & Co., Montreal, Canada, started out in life as a wheel maker and sleigh maker. After acquiring a knowledge of the trade he found employment in the shops of Rochester, New York. In 1880 he was working in the carriage factories of New Haven, Connecticut. Next we hear of him in New York City and Brooklyn, in the different shops of those cities.

While in New York he pursued a course of study in the Technical School, and on completion returned to New Haven, in 1887, where he occupied a responsible position. In 1889 he accepted a high position in Milwaukee, and later on a similar position in Moline. Illinois. Later on he became superintendent of the leading carriage plant in York, Pennsylvania. He was engaged for some time with the Watertown (New York.) Spring Wagon Co., and from there he went to E. N. Heney & Co., Montreal, Canada, and remained until his death.

J. Kutscha, draftsman for the Vehicle Equipment Co.. Brooklyn, New York, was born in Silesia, Germany, in 1865. He learned the trade of carriage and wagon making under the old fashioned and thorough apprenticeship system prevailing in Germany. He then worked in some of the leading shops of Germany, including Mengelbier, in Aix la Chapelle, and Hoercher & Co., Hamburg. In 1889 he left Hamburg for Buenos Ayres. South America, where he remained two years, returning to German.

The conditions there did not suit his progressive ideas, and he came to the United States, locating in Chicago for a while. In 1903 he returned to New York, and was engaged by the firm of Brewster & Co., working as body maker. He was employed as draftsman in that city by F. R. Wood & Son. He is at present working for the Vehicle Equipment Co.. designing styles for automobiles and superintending construction.

Andrew F. Johnson, instructor in chief of the Technical School of Carriage Draftsmen, New York City; was born in Westfield, Nova Scotia, in 1854. At an early age he learned sleigh and carriage building near Portland, Maine, and among his employers was Zenas Thompson, of that city. He also worked for Winn & Doucette, Merrimac, Massachusetts, and later with Brewster & Co., New York City.

He was a zealous and enthusiastic student for three years in the Technical School, and won the grand prize, which provided for a trip to Paris for further study. While in Paris he studied carriage drafting in the celebrated school of Albert Dupont, returning subsequently to New York. Upon the death of Professor Gribbon, Professor Johnson was appointed in his stead, and has since remained in charge of the school.

John D, Gribbon, formerly draftsman with Brewster & Co.. New York, was born in Dublin, Ireland, December 16, 1818, and died in New York City on February 19, 1892, in his seventy fourth year. At the age of thirteen he was a pupil in the Royal Dublin Society School of Arts. At fifteen years he apprenticed himself to M. Maloney; coach builder, at Limerick, then worked for three years with Lang & Sons, Dublin. He came to the United States in 1848, and at once engaged with Charles Beardsley, New York City. After a short time he accepted employment with Tomlinson & Wood. Bridgeport, Connecticut.

Mr. Gribbon paid a visit to Ireland in 1852, and on his return engaged with the Union Carriage Co.. Bridgeport. Connecticut. He was next appointed draftsman for Brewster & Co., Broome street. New York, This was in 1859, and he held that position until 1870. When the Technical School for Carriage Draftsmen was established, he was made instructor in chief, and held that position until his death,

John G, Hahn, foreman and draftsman for D. M. Lane Sons. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was born in February, 1850, at Würtember, Germany, and cattle to this country in 1865 and served his apprenticeship in Carversville, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, with the late Conrad Velder. After his apprenticeship he went to Philadelphia, in 1859, working under instruction for eighteen months on heavy work with Beckhaus & Allgeier. In 1873 he took a trip to Germany, and attended the carriage drafting school at Carriage Builder's National Association Stuttgart. He returned to the United States in 1874 and engaged with John Allgeier. Fifth and Buttonwood streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In December. 1879, he went with D. M. Lane's Sons, as foreman and draftsman, where he is now.