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Carriage Monthly August 1873.
ATLANTA, Georgia., July, I 873.
     MR. EDITOR:--Inclosed I send you sketches for making a driver's cushion. Suppose you want your cushion 14 by 15 inches, you will make a paper pattern that size; then take a large piece of paper and mark line A 15 inches long, and square that 5½ inches, the height of your facing at the corner, and form line B, and square that line parallel with line A and form line C 15 inches in length. Now, square again and form line D. Now, we will say your cushion wants to flare 2½ inches at the back and 2½ inches at the side, and brought down to nothing at the front. We will now measure 2½ inches from point E and form point F, 5½ inches from point O. That gives you the flare on the back at one side. Now, to get the flare on the side, measure 2½ inches from point F, and 5½ inches from point O, and form point H. Now, square the last line 14 inches from point O, and you have the bottom line of your cushion for one side. Now, just do the other side the same way from point L. Draw line F from points K and H on both sides. Sweep from points K and H, and F and L and you have the full size of your facing. I cannot give you the exact amount of the sweep, that varies according to the size of cushion Now, round off the corners of the bottom a little and facing to match. Make your cushion bottom out of three thicknesses of buckram, ¼ inch smaller than your pattern, and when dry paste heavy duck on one side and cotton cloth on the other side ¼ inch larger than the buckram. This makes it the same size of your pattern, and do the facing the same way, only put collar leather instead of duck, and raise it if you like.
     Lay your bottom off in six equal parts both ways, and put the center of your bottom at the center line of your facing, and lay off the same, putting the holes for the buttons exactly in the center of the facing. Now, we will suppose the bottom made and sewed together. You will now want the top. I lay it off just as the sketch, allowing 1/8 inch fullness in the center squares. In the front allow about ¾ inch in fullness; that will leave enough to sew to. In the width allow only 1/8 inch. On the outside row you have to leave 3 inches over and above the size of the square and the amount of the flare. For instance, your square is 2 inches and your flare 2½ inches, making 4½ inches, and add 3 inches, which is 7 ½ inches. Do the same with the back, only allow 3½ inches instead of 3 inches. You will have fullness at each corner, which you will take out by a pleat at the center of the back corner. In front take the fullness out by a pleat at the first button, laying it toward the front. On the outside row of buttons you will have to use two tufting cords, one to the side and the other to the bottom; and the back corner three tufting cords, one at the back, one at the side, and one at the bottom.
    I think with what explanation I have given, and a little sound judgment, a trimmer ought to make a very good driver's cushion.
     I also send you a driver's seat fall, which needs no explanation, except that the raisers are ½ inch wide and half oval, and lay in 1/8 inch together, and are stitched in between and are pointed at top as per sketch. F. C. S.

Hub January 1874 page 325.
     On several of the carriages exhibited by Austrian manufacturers at Vienna, we noticed a new and simple method of securing driving-cushions to the lower cushion respectively, to prevent them from sliding out of position. The annexed illustration will explain this contrivance.
     A tenon A is fastened in the lower cushion, and in the bottom of the driving cushion are two holes, the location of which is so arranged that the driving cushion can either be set on the side or in the middle, as indicated by dotted lines. In both of these positions it is held by the same tenon.
     This is a very simple and useful plan, and we recommend its adoption to American carriage-makers.

Carriage Monthly January 1883 page 228.
     The accompanying drawings Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4 present as many different designs for driving-seat boxes, which are very important factors, regarding the pleasing appearance of a front seat or dickey-seat of such carriages to which they are applied.
     Fig. 1 illustrates the plain seat, void of rolls or any other fixture; it is, however, a very neat and durable seat, and should be made in the following way. Of course there are many different ways in making the boxes, but this it is not our purpose to discuss; however, concerning the application of a board top, we would stoutly contend that it is far superior to the sometimes applied "trimmed" top, because of the tendency of the latter to eventually become bagged, there by loosening the cloth, and making the seat at once have an old semblance. This board should not be allowed to be nearer the top of seat than about one inch in the center and gradually tapering to ½ inch at each end. To better explain what is meant, we will take a box without any top on it of any kind; it is now our design to have a board top applied to it; there are various ways to fasten the board, but in all instances it should be lower at about the center of the seat, to permit the application of a little more hair at that point, without manifesting it from the outside. This is done to make the cushion softer just at the place where the driver is supposed to sit.
    There are various materials employed in the trimming of these boxes; all colors of cloth are used and various colors of leather, but cloth is, by far, the most stylish and most in demand for high-priced work; they are also trimmed in the following combination of material, viz, cloth sides, leather rolls, leather or cloth center, by which is meant that portion of the seat which is sat upon, also, leather: sides, cloth rolls, leather or cloth centers, cloth sides, cloth rolls, plush center; the application of plush is supposed prevent the driver from slipping, it being lied with the nap running toward the back but ahead of all these; comes the “all-cloth" seat with patent leather welts. This design is especially adapted to T-carts where the trimming totally plain throughout.
     Figs, 2 and 3 are alike in all respects, excepting the concave back which is represented in Fig. 3. This feature is thought by some to effect a more graceful appearance than perfectly straight, as well as being perhaps better shaped to its office than the other. Fig. 4 differs from Fig. 2 only in the respect that the roll is continuous around the three sides, but all of them are fundamentally similar.
     In commencing to trim one of these seats the hair, is first laid to a satisfactory, height and, covered over with muslin, whereupon the cloth is cut out for the center piece and rolls; the center piece is marked out with, as much stretch taken out as the material will permit; the rolls generally made 2 inches back and 1¾ inches front, and are given about 1 or 1¼ inches fullness, exclusive of the, quantity essential to fastening; they should be cut in a shape something like that given in Fig. 5 if it is desired to finish a corner without plaits; if cloth is used the rolls should invariably be lined with muslin with cotton wadding intervening; there are various ways to fasten, the rolls upon, the inner edge, but perhaps the best method is to sew them to the center piece, and allow the center piece to be tacked to the sides, which will hold firmly in position the rolls and effect a tight center piece, and to effect smooth rolls it is necessary first to draw them very tight and to use every precaution in stuffing.
     Concerning the side trimmings or facings as they are called in an ordinary cushion, it may be said that sometimes they may be made in one whole piece if the flare of seat is not too much to prevent drawing them down after they have been blind tacked, but where the flare is extensive to allow this it is necessary to make the facings in three separate pieces, and to do this sometimes necessitates tacking at the back mitres, which does not make a pleasing finish; to, overcome this it is suggested to mark out the facings on the cloth, hem the back facing upon the sewing machine, and before tacking to place apply a long drawing-string, uniting the facing; this string will permit the mitre to remain open until after the facings are drawn down, when the mitres may be closed by pulling the string, and they will appear as though they were sewed up solid. Ben Tack.

Carriage Monthly April 1883 page 13 & May 1883 page 36.
     ...The front seat, or dickey seat, has a square seat-valance, about 3 inches wide, and is finished with a plated molding. The driver's cushion, box and fall were trimmed with heavy cloth and finished with patent leather welts. The box is an open-top box, or covered with webbing, rather than boarded over. The rolls should not be very high....      Ben TACK.

Carriage Monthly September 1885 page 159.
     The accompanying illustration represents a dickey-seat cushion and driver's box or cushion, usually made of wood, which is perhaps the best way both for durability and loops. The only difficulty that seems to be in the way is the want of a proper application for holding the driver's box in position, and at the same time allowing it to be adjusted from one end to the middle. The old way was to have two iron pins attached to the box and three holes inserted in the cushion to accommodate them, but this was faulty because of the liability of the cloth tearing at this point, as well as the tendency of the cushion to break out at the holes.
     The way illustrated, however, is a decided improvement in this direction, not new or original by any means, but it is mentioned because of its simplicity, and in fact because of its economy. It consists simply of a block of wood about 6 by 3/4 inch, applied to the cushion as seen in the cut. This block is permanent after being once fastened to the cushion. The box has two slots cut in the bottom, and so arranged as to adjust it either from the side or middle.
     Some trimmers cover the projecting block, but this is not advisable, because it will soon wear off; it is therefore preferable to simply paint it, as it is never visible.
     For the convenience of the trimmer, it is best to have the block loose or fastened with screws from the bottom, as the cushion can be all completed without cutting around it, which makes a weak place, so much to be avoided; the block then is screwed on the very last thing.

Carriage Monthly August 1886 page 129.
     We will not dwell on the filling up or stuffing of the box, as they are made so many ways that a different way has to be adopted for each box; however, let us presume a box stuffed as seen in Fig. 1; proceed then to draw on the cloth or leather over the top by tacking temporarily; be sure and draw it smooth around the edges, then with chalk mark the line for the roll which may be 2 inches wide at the back corner, and 1 7/8 inches at the front; take a flexible straight edge and mark the line as seen in Fig. 1; then take the cloth off and prepare the rolls as follows: if a 2-inch roll is desired, cut the material 4 ½ inches wide and shape it as in Fig. 2 , which has from 1/4 to 3/8 inch taken off the inside edge at the ends of the rolls. This part is then sewed to the mark on the cloth; it is done to help take out the wrinkles or fullness that is sure to be found along the outside of roll; in other words never sew the roll on straight; it is our habit of stuffing the rolls with a stuffing stick, but always taking small quantities of hair at a time; some prefer to lay the hair and draw the cloth over, but this is optional, as some can do it better one way than another.
     The sides and back pieces, or facings as they may be called, can he blind-tacked on to look very nice, with the exercise of some patience; others again prefer to blind-sew them, but it takes longer time to do it, and no, better result is obtained.

Hub September 1886 page 366.
     Many trimmers find it no easy task to make a driving-cushion, and, for the benefit of those who possess no satisfactory rule for doing this kind of work, we present the accompanying cuts together with the following hints to guide them.
     Fig. 1 represents the bottom and the facings of a driving-cushion. The bottom should not be cut less than 15 in. wide lengthwise of the cushion, and it should preferably be 16 in. if the seat will allow it, and as wide as the top of the bottom cushion. The bottom of the driving cushion has a sweep in front of 3/8 in., and a piece of top-leather is pasted along the front to stiffen it. Cloth is pasted over the bottom to prevent it from slipping about, and also to prevent it from defacing the top of the seat cushion.
    The bottom is laid off with five buttons each way. The side and back, spaces must not be as large as the inner spaces. Buckram is not fit for the rough-lining of the facings, as it will break and crease up in turning the cushion. Dash splits make a much better foundation for such work. Cut a neat pattern of the size of the back and side facing, 3/8 in. less all around than the facing is to be. Give to the top of the back facing 5/16 in. sweep.
     Dampen the leather and shape the facings neatly to the pattern. The widths of the facings are determined by the size and style of the vehicle. Paste Russia sheeting on each side of the leather, reserving the flesh side for the cloth or outside. Raise the facings with felt goods, cutting it out at each button sufficiently to let the button in on a level with the felt. Also, with a No. 6 punch, pierce through the facings for the tufting twine.
     The felt or raised work should be cut 5/16 in. less all around than the patent leather. Paste the cloth around the edge, from the raised work, and at the buttons. Press the cloth down at the buttons with tack leathers. Stitch the facings around the raised work upon the machine. Draw the lines a a a a and b b b b on the facings. Use a small cord at the miters, and sew them strong, using the jaws of the horse.
     The top can be calculated before the facings are sewed to the bottom. The two lines on each facing are the guide. No fullness is allowed between the buttons, and none between the a and b marks on the top, but it should correspond with a and b as marked on the facing. At the front allow 3/4 in. At the sides, near the back, allow 2 ½ in. over the bottom, gradually diminishing toward the front. At the back allow 1 1/4 in. fullness from b on the side facing to a on the back facing. Give the cloth at the back 3/8 in. sweep from the corners.
     Before rounding off the corners of the cloth, cut the miters. These are very easily calculated by measuring from line b to a, and whatever fullness is found between these two lines must be taken out at the miters. When this has been done, the corners can be rounded off, but not too much, for a little fullness at the corners is necessary to form the roll on the sides.
     Mark for the buttons on the cloth with a small punch, and also at a and b. Line the cloth with muslin, with cotton in between. Baste the cloth to the muslin and wadding around the edges, and take a stitch at each tuft-mark to keep the wadding in place. Sew the miters upon the machine, and press them out with a hot iron.
     When the facings have been sewed to the bottom, turn them, and beat the edges down around the cord-welt. Baste the cord-welt to the top of the facings with the facings right side out. Piece the cord-welt near the center of the back facing. Then turn the facing out again, and baste the top to lines a a and b b. Leave the mouth open at the back facing between the miters a a. Sew the top in with a back-stitch on the facing side, and sew a muslin division in; but let the muslin be loose, for, if it is strained or tight between the facings, it will kink them in drawing in the tufts.
     After the cushion has been turned, then beat down the edges around the cord, and twine the corners with double twine and two single twines between the corners at the back and front.
Fig. 3 represents a frame on which to nail the cushion while stuffing and tufting it. It is merely an ordinary frame, made of four strips of poplar nailed together at the corners. Letter a represents a loose board which is placed on the frame after the cushion has been tacked out.
     After the cushion has been stuffed, the board is withdrawn until the cushion is tufted. Take a stitch at each tuft-mark at the mouth, until the tufts are all drawn in. Then finish stuffing out the back corners and facing, and close the mouth with the division.
     In sewing the cloth to the welt, try to conceal the stitches; and, to prevent the thread from marking the welt and facing, rub it off well with a cloth after it has been waxed. Next cut, the surplus twine from the buttons, and, with a bench-awl, work the ends under the buttons. Then again place the board under the cushion, and let the cushion remain on the frame until it is wanted. U. No.

Carriage Monthly October 1887 page 193.
     Driver's boxes, or dickey-seats, should always be made with a wooden bottom in place of web, as it has been demonstrated that web cannot be fastened or tacked sufficiently strong to bear the weight of a heavy man. Even if the tacks do not draw, the trimming, in time, will be found sinking in the center, caused by the strain on the web, which can in no way be prevented, except by having wood to take the place of web as before stated, which will also make the seat solid, as should always be the case with dickey-seats, and yet will not be uncomfortable, if the board be not too near the top and properly covered with hair. In trimming, probably the difficult part would be to get a smooth and well-shaped roll; this can easily be done by cutting the cloth for the roll with a good sweep, say about 3/4 inch, to be sewed next to the center of seat. That the meaning may not be misconstrued, let us state that the roll is to be sewed on a straight line, as seen in Fig. 2, on the center piece, the 3/4 being fulness in inside of roll as seen in Fig. 1. The reason for doing this can readily be seen, as the extra 3/4 allows the roll to stuff up full in the center, with out taking so much from the outside edge and leaving it thrown around in such a shape as to cause wrinkling along the tacks, which, in part, is a defect sought to be remedied by cutting the roll in this manner.
     In re-covering old driver's boxes a great deal of time can be saved by covering right over the old trimming, with one piece of cloth, and mitering the corners by sewing with two needles and trimming cloth close to stitches. The old welt makes the edges nice and round, and will not cut through the cloth. In making falls for front seats use kersey one inch wide, about 3/4 inch from edge, and bind with bow leather; sticks need not be placed in any falls, as they are more durable without, for if made of wood they are continually breaking; and if made of iron, will be found tearing out at the ends. C. A. BROUGHAM.

Hub May 1889 page 126.
     The accompanying sketch represents a good driving-cushion for Surreys or T-carts, and when well made it adds very much to the appearance of the vehicle. The bottom is made of canvas lined with cloth, a piece of top-leather, 4 in. wide, is pasted across the front between the canvas and the cloth. When marking for the tufts, use knob-punch to mark for the first row of tufts; this will allow the eye of the button and the twine to pass through the lining-piece, and the button to lay flat on the bottom. The facings are more elastic when made of grain dash-leather, with muslin or linen pasted on the flesh side. Glass, or sandpaper the varnish off, and back the facings with thin top-leather; raise the facings with felt goods, and, on the side and back facings cut around the tuft-holes sufficiently for the button to draw in to the level of the cloth. Punch the holes in the facings with knob-punch. The front facing at the front corner is 2 in. wide rounded down to 1 in., and 3 in. wide at the back corner; this measurement means the foundation-pieces before they are pasted out. The cushion looks better when a light cord is sewn in the miters of the facings, The cushion-top has a light roll formed after the cushion has been tufted. There should be no fullness between the tufts. 3/4-in. fullness is allowed on the sides and back to form the raise; the fullness in the cloth is taken out at the miters; the back miter is concaved to suit the fullness of the cloth, and the front miter is merely notched or a piece taken out from the front of the tuft. ½-in. fullness is sufficient to allow in the front between the first row of tufts and the facing. Sew a cloth welt in the miters, leave the mouth open at the back of the cushion, make the division out of thin canvas and punch holes to correspond with those at the bottom. The sketch represents five rows of tufts lengthwise, and four rows crosswise. We think that five rows crosswise would be better, as it would give a lighter roll to the side facings. Before stuffing the cushion, tack it out on a frame with a loose board under the bottom so that it can be removed when the cushion is stuffed and ready for the tufting. When the tufts have been drawn in and the cushion finished, replace the board and let the cushion remain on the frame until needed for the job. Uno.

Carriage Monthly July 1889 page 108-109 August 1889 page 136 September 1889 page 169.
     ...The trimming for the dickey-seat consists of two boxes made in wood, as shown in Figs. 7 and 8; the former is the cushion box, and is made the exact size of the seat board, the cushion being cut out for the irons of the rail, as shown in the cut. These boxes are grooved or rabbeted out to allow the trimming material to be tacked to it. The bottom for these boxes are made of wood, about ½ inch from the top, the old fashion straining web being done away with. The front edge of these cushions is rounded, the cloth passing over if without a welt, as was sometimes used.
      The driving box, Fig. 8, is made as usual, but has a wooden bottom, as seen in the cut; the back edge of this box is concaved; the reason for this is that coachmen complained of the edge of the back facing or wall when made straight; the rolls for these boxes can be in two ways. One is to sew the rolls to the cloth, and the other to tack the rolls to the blocking, which is applied to this box as shown. This is the easier way, and perhaps the best; these blockings are made about 2 inches wide, or just as wide as it is desired to finish the roll. This will make the rolls more solid than if sewed. The best way that we have yet seen to hold these boxes in place is by the use of the small, block which we show in Fig. 7. There are holes cut in the under bottom of the driving box to accommodate this block, the block being located so that by the use of two holes in the driving box, the box can be used on the right side of the cushion as well as in the center....

Hub August 1889 page 355.
     The accompanying sketch shows the side or end-view of a driving-box for dickey-seat. When this box is made properly, that is, with a neat sweep to the top of the driving-box, and a sufficient curve given to the lower part to prevent the bottom of the box from resting on the cloth of the lower box, the front of the lower box nicely rounded off, and both of the boxes neatly trimmed, it adds a great deal to the appearance of the front of the vehicle: but, when it is carelessly and poorly made, and is slovenly trimmed, it is anything but an ornament to the front of a carriage. It cannot be expected of the trimmer to make a good job if he has a poor box to build upon. We give the following as a good way to have the driving-box made:
     After the size and the sweep of the box has been determined upon, make the sides and the back out of 5/8-in. stuff, either soft ash or hard poplar. Frame the back pieces to the side pieces, half the thickness of the wood, letting the side pieces lap the back. Frame a 2-in. piece of ash across the front, 1 in. thick, with the front rounded off to suit the sweep of the side pieces at the corner. The back and the side pieces are lined with poplar 3/4 in. thick, extending to within 3/4 in. of the top of the side, and the back pieces, with the edges chamfered off. These lining pieces are glued and screwed from the inside, and canvased all over with scrims. The bottom board is made of thin roof stuff, and canvased from the inside. The surface on the outside should be smooth, and when the box is finished, it should be coated all over with good oil lead.
     The trimmer can either use strain web for the foundation, or a piece of old dash-leather. This is tacked, of course, to the lining-pieces. If web is used, draw a piece of buckram over the web to prevent the hair from falling through. Draw buckram over the top of the box, leaving the mouth open at the back. Stuff between the two buckrams with good hair.
     The cloth for the sides and back is cut in one piece and is tacked to the top and bottom of the box. The cloth from the top is cut to fit the box on the sides, and large enough to blind-tack at the back, and to tack under on the front. Line the cloth with good muslin. Draw chalk lines two inches on each side for the rolls. Baste a cord welt to the chalk-lines, cutting the cord away back and front. Cut the cloth for the rolls 3 ½ in. wide, with the inside edge at the top and the bottom, well sloped off so as to avoid clumsy corners. Line the roll pieces with muslin with cotton in between. Sew the rolls to the cord with a good thread, using a back-stitch.
     Tack a rattan welt around the top of the box. Let it hug close to the edge of the box, using plenty of tacks well driven in. Blind-tack the back part from roll to roll close to the welt, using a strip of oil carpet or dash-leather the width of the board from the cord. Tack the front part of the cloth to the bottom of the box, leaving the end of the rolls open. Take E silk doubled and well rubbed off, so as not to have it kinky, and blind-sew the roll in, commencing at the back part. Take several stitches first with a short stitch to the welt, and a long stitch to the cloth, but do not draw the stitches up until six or eight have been taken, then, with bench awl, work up each stitch. Continue in this manner until the roll is sewed in. The rolls can be filled with hair or wadding.
     Use no cord at the bottom, for it would chafe the cloth on the lower box. Line the bottom of the box with thin black canvas. The lower box is made plain, and with cord welts. The cloth is mitered at the back of the box and near the corner, and can be sewed in with a blind-stitch, or nicely gimped. The front corner is mitered at the part cut out to fit around the seat-rail. UNO.

Carriage Monthly October 1890 page 219 & November 1890 page 250.
     The style, construction and finish of dickey seats and driving cushions for light, medium and heavy work varies considerable, and a few illustrations will suffice to give trimmers some idea relating to its construction and general make-up. Light work, such as Kensingtons, surreys and phaetons, carrying four persons, usually have a driving cushion made up soft, and some are made over a wooden frame, principally for broughams, landaus, &c. On T-carts generally both cushions, front and back, and also the driving cushion, is trimmed plain; consequently they are all made over wooden frames, and as the front seat is turning over to make a passage for the back seat, the cushion must be in two parts, as illustrated in Fig.1. The finish is plain, with and without raisers, and the edges bound with leather or the same cloth as the trimming. A few years ago the edges were all bound with leather, while at present there are many made bound with cloth. Almost all of those finished plain have a strap in the center of the cushion, and also one in center of driving cushion.
    In Fig. 2 we illustrate a surrey seat also made to turn over, and consequently the cushion and fall must be made in two pieces each on the majority of this work the seats are finished with squares, and the driving cushion as illustrated, what is termed made up soft. In most cases the falls have 7/8-inch raisers, or only stitched around the edges. Straps same as on T-carts.
     Fig. 3 shows a surrey where the entrance is between the two seats; consequently the cushion is made in one, the driving cushion resting on top without any straps. The cushion, and also the driving cushion, are trimmed over a wooden frame, and have plain finish, with the exception of rolls on driving cushion, and 7/8-inch raisers on fall. For heavy work such as cabriolets, Victorias, broughams, coaches, landaulets, and landaus, the finish is generally plain, always made up over wooden frames, but the style varies, as, we will show in the following illustrations.
     Fig. 4 illustrates a plain cushion, and also driving seat plain, without rolls, which are only made occasionally. The fall has 7/8-inch raiser, and the edges of cushion, driving cushion and fall are bound with leather. The back skirt corners are square, and the front ones rounded only partly on top and bottom.
     Fig. 5 is a style generally made in the best shops; cushions plain, made over wooden frames, and rolls on driving cushion. The finish of the fall has either 7/8-inch raisers, round or flat round shape, or finished with two half-round heads, 5/16 or 3/8 inch in size. Back and front corners of skirt rounded as illustrated.
     Fig. 6 is one of the latest styles in heavy work. The iron rail is more curved on the back end, and a great deal more on the front end. The cushion is finished plain, and the. driving cushion has rolls the same as Fig. 5. The corners on the falls are rounded, and finished with beads around the edges. The shape of fall finished with beads is considered new, and some have been made for the Fall work.
     Fig. 7 illustrates one of those styles made for several years past for Victorias, cabriolets, broughams and coaches. The entire driving seat consists of a wooden frame, and the cushion is done away with. The skirt is rounded back and front, and the fall finished as usual.
    Fig. 8 is the same as Fig. 7, with a driving cushion only over the entire frame, but the shape of the driving cushion is swept hollow instead of being round, also the fall has a different shape. Fig. 7 is preferred to Fig. 8, for form. Fig. 9 illustrates the construction of a break seat, showing the cushion and driving seat; generally there is a double rail proportioned to meet the requirements of the body. The cushion is separated from the driving cushion, and both resting direct on the seat. The cushion is finished with square blocks, plain front and two straps. The driving cushion is made up plain, a great deal larger than those made for coaches, and heavy rolls on each side. Two straps fastened as illustrated. The fall is finished with two half-round beads, 1 3/4 inches apart.

Hub October 1890 page 522.
     The dickey-box is made to slant up to the bottomside of the seat-rail (usually seven inches), as shown in the accompanying sketch. The top of this box should be sunk one inch below the sides, to allow space for sufficient hair to make a firm yet somewhat pliable foundation for the upper or driver's-cushion to rest upon.
     This box is trimmed in the usual plain style, with either cloth or leather welts, cloth being preferable in wearing quality to leather, which latter soon becomes rusty looking.
     The upper cushion should be a firm, tufted cushion, but not a plaited cushion, with a stiff facing cut wedge-form to four inches in height, at the back. The corners are made rounding as shown in sketch.
     The best fastening for this cushion is a small strap at the center of the back facing to buckle to the seat-rail, and two small straps sewed into the front seam to knob on the under side of the dickey-box.      B. Streeter.

Hub March 1891 page 963.
     The three illustrations here represented, Figs. 1, 2 and 3, show an ordinary landau seat "wooded-up," ready for trimming.
     The frame, X, which supports the driver's-box, A, is got out of 2 x 1 ½ in. whitewood, and well secured at the corners by screws and glue. The panels or bottom-boards, 3/8 in. thick, are rabbeted into the top of this frame, and secured and nailed down. The upper or driver's-box should be made stout and strong. Use 1 in. pine or whitewood for the sides and back; for the top-board (see dotted line BB, Fig. 1), 3/8 in. whitewood; and for the bottom-board, ½ in., slightly concaved, and well-canvased on the inside (see line O, Fig. I).
     In Fig. 2, half the front is illustrated, showing the flare of the skirt, which is got out of 5/8 x 1 1/4 in. whitewood, and securely nailed to the bottom of the seat. This view also shows the lamp-irons, extension of seat-rail, etc.
     Fig. 3 shows the top view. At A, the driver's-box, we have drawn dotted lines C C, which show the positions of holes in the bottom panel of the box. A block, 6 x 1 1/4 in. ash. is screwed to the lower frame, X, in the correct position to meet the above-mentioned holes in the box. This is a simple and effective way to keep the driver's-box secure. WHITEWOOD.

Driving Boxes for Coaches.
Carriage Monthly July 1892 page 111.
     There is a tendency to discard the old fashioned way of making the boxes for a dickey seat on Berlin coaches, landaus, and demi-coaches. The change is a wise one. Generally speaking, it answers all the purposes of such jobs. There is less to get out of order, and it is always ready for one or two persons. The accompanying illustration shows the shape of the one box that is used. It has a top on it, made in the shape of a regular dickey seat, except at the front edge.

Carriage Monthly April 1894 page 14.
     We give in Fig. 1 a full sketch of the bottom and facings of a tufted driving cushion. There is no flare to the back facings, and the side facing has the flare of the seat. The bottom is laid off for five tufts each way, as is customary for this kind of cushion, but it can be easily changed to four tufts without altering the shape of the facings or the size of the tops. The space on the side, from the tufts to the edge, is 2 inches and 1¼ inches at the back, and the dotted line across the front of the bottom represents a stay or stiffening for the front. There is a small sweep given to the front of the bottom, which is necessary to keep the front straight after the cushion is stuffed. The bottom should be lined with cloth, with cotton between, so as not to wear or chafe the top of the seat cushion. The tuft holes in the facings are made with a No. 7 knob punch. This will let the eye of the button work free, and will allow the button to lay close to the facings. The lines at the corners of the bottom and across the facings should be observed in fitting up the cushion.
     Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5 illustrate four different styles to make the top. Fig. 4 has a roll mitre at the back corners, and when tufted forms a roll on the sides and back. Allow 1½ inches fullness to the top at the back mitres, gradually rounding away toward the front on the side facing. Fig. 3 is made in the same manner and has the same fullness, but has a straight mitre at the back corners. It also forms a roll on the side and back. Fig. 4 is different. It has a roll on the sides but none on the back; the top has the same fullness at the sides, but only 5/8 inch at the back facing and 5/8 inch on the front. All of the mitres but should have a thin welt in them. The tops should be lined with muslin, with cotton between.
     Fig. 5 is a plain top with only ½ inch fullness all around. No fullness is allowed in either of the tops between the tufts. A very good plan to get the exact fullness and the sweep of the top, is to first sew the bottom to the facings, then lay the tuft lines of the top off, place the facings on the cloth, spreading the side facing out in about the manner it ought to be when finished, and dot around
and the back facing with chalk. Allow 1½ inches fullness, gradually lessening the fullness toward the front.
     This is a simple and a correct plan to get the right shape to the top where there are only side and back facings. Sew the division in strong, and have it to fit neatly to the facings. Leave the mouth open at the back, cord the bottom of the cushion at the corners, and two between on the front and the back. Tack the cushion on a frame that has a portable bottom, and in stuffing the bottom pay, particular attention to filling up the facing. Don't get too much hair in the middle of the cushion. Do not fasten the division at the mouth. Merely take, a stitch or so for the present. In stuffing up the top be careful to get the hair full and regular around the roll. Do not get it too full in the center. Close the mouth with a stitch or two, I. e, tie it to the welt in two places, draw the board from the bottom and draw in the tufts.
     Let the tufts in the facings be the last to adjust. Be careful not to draw them in too tight, so as not to get the facings out of shape. Have a watchful eye also while drawing them in to the roll. After all of the tufts have been drawn in, place the board under the bottom, and if there are any weak or loose places in the stuffing, make it good before the mouth is closed up. Keep the cushion on the frame and sponge the top and the facings with warm ammonia water, a teaspoonful of ammonia to a quart of water. Use the sponge with the nap of the cloth, and lay the cushion aside until thoroughly dry.

Hub November 1895 page 594.
     The two accompanying sketches illustrate a common-sense way to make and trim a driving seat.
     Fig. 1 illustrates the back part of the box and the way it is trimmed, also the device by which the driving seat is secured to the seat-box; there is no other change from the usual way of making and trimming the box except in the back. The heavy dark curve line noted in the sketch represents a leather cord welt, also the top edge of the box. The box is made with a board division. starting at the curve line. A piece of good strain web is tacked across the back of the box under the side rolls, with one edge flush with the back of the box; the web ought to be well stretched and firmly fastened. Then draw a piece of duck canvas over the top of the box, stretch it taut each way, tack it to the sides first, turn the canvas over the web and point a few tacks along the curve line, fill the space up with good hair and with needle and tufting twine quilt the hair to the canvas and web, forming a square, even firm corner. This part of the work is done in about the same manner that the upholsterer forms the front of a chair before the outside goods is drawn over. After working up the corner in a rounded manner, finish stuffing from the front of the box. Draw the tacks from the canvas at the back and make good the loose places in the hair.
     The side rolls are made in the usual way, except the center roll on the large box, which is made on a piece of zinc cut the right width and length with the edges rounded off; cover the zinc with leather and punch in three small holes through the center, spaced off between the two ends; drive small nails without heads; in the center division allow them to stand up ½ in. from the wood; space these nails off to suit the holes in the zinc; make the roll in the zinc complete, except the ends, which are left open. Place the roll on the nails and hold it firmly down until the zinc is nailed down at the ends. The pointed nails are to prevent the roll from moving from a straight position.
     The cloth for the sides and the back of the boxes is to be cut into three pieces and blind tacked to the cord welt. Fit a piece of thin cardboard to cover the whole surface of the sides and back. Tack the cardboard nicely on and draw the cloth over without any cotton; turn under the edges of the cloth at the corners and form a neat welt by stitching them together with two needles and machine silk. The fastenings on the driving box are made of harness leather, covered with two pieces of goatskin pasted on and creased down along the edge of the harness leather, when dry, with two rows of machine stitching. Trim the edges of the goatskin off close to the stitching, black and nicely rub them up. Fasten the straps to the driving box with a roundhead screw, and a leather loop screwed on over the strap at the bottom of the box. Make the lower part of the strap with a silver curtain fastener. Cover the lower seat box without any cord welt, the cloth that covers the box to be in one place; turn under the corners of the cloth and stitch the same as for the driving box.

Hub May 1896 page 116.
     ...It will be seen that the driver's cushion is made with a regular front facing and rests on the seat bottom, which we think is much neater than to rest on the top of a long cushion. The bottom is made from pebble duck, with leather patches at the buttonholes. The front facing is cut 1 5/8 in. wide, the side facings 6½ in. at the back and narrowed down to 1 5/8 in. at the front, the back facing being of canvas 6½ in. wide, and is flared back with the seat. The top is made up with 3/4 in. fulness, back and front, and 5/8 in. sidewise. The top is plaited to the partition, and stuffed upon a frame. The lower part of the cushion is stuffed from the back at the top. The side and back facings are tufted corresponding to the top and bottom tufts on the outer edge. All the buttonholes in the partition at the side and back rows, at least, should have leather patches, as these buttons must stand the additional strain of the side tufts....

illustration Carriage Monthly March 1903 back cover.