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Feature Topic of the Month: Healey & Company of New York

Healey & Company of New York, New York.

This business was established in 1849 as Williams & Dingel and later became Loos & Williams. From the very beginning the company was noted for its fine work and carefully finished carriages. In 1881 the firm name was changed to Healey, Williams & Company, and by 1886 was known simply as Healey & Company. Under this name it continued to turn out fine light and heavy work until after the 1900.

Hub January 1884 page 634

Our Fashion Plate No. 83 represents a vehicle built by one of the leading firms of New York city, Messrs. Healey, Williams & Co., to the order of a prominent physician, also of this city, which affords an admirable example of the direction in which the demand is now tending.

The body of this vehicle comes under the general class of Coal box Buggies, but is also allied to that modernized form known as the "Corning." The vehicle is made unusually strong, which is a feature of vital importance in all vehicles intended for the use of physicians, which are necessarily called upon to undergo hard service, and special attention has evidently been given to the construction of the wheels, which are made sufficiently heavy, and yet do not have a clumsy appearance, the spokes particularly being so shaped as to give a maximum degree of strength with minimum lightness.

The design of the body deserves special commendation. The backward flare of the molding form's a tasteful finish on the front of the seat and a part of the body. This molding is 1 1/4 in. wide, and rounded on the outside. The back of the seat is gracefully curved, and also the sides of the same. An oval light is introduced between the second and third bows, and this is finished around the outside edge with a half round molding. The back joint is the only one visible on the outside. The horizontal joint is fastened on the inside, and provided at the bottom face with a hook. This arrangement of the horizontal joint is intended to enable the occupant to fold the front bow against the second one without leaving the carriage, a practice so generally in vogue among physicians of this city that their vehicles can nearly all be recognized by this peculiarity. Tops of this kind are seldom lowered, as the position of the light between the second and third bows prevents the top from folding close together.

Dimensions. Width of body on top, 32 1/8 in.; and on bottom, 31 1/8 in. Width of seat at the top, 41 in.; and at the bottom, 35 1/4 in. Front wheels, 3 ft. 6 in., and hind, 4 ft. in diameter. Depth of rims, 1 3/8 in. Size of spokes, 1 3/8 in. Stagger of spokes, 3/8 in. Number of spokes, 14. Hubs, 4 3/4 in. diameter. Front bands. 3 3/8 in., and the back, 4 in. diameter. Length of front bands, 1 3/4 in. Length of hubs, 7 in. Tire, 1 1/8 x 1/4 in., round edge. steel.

The front spring is elliptic, 38 in. long, from out to out, with 8 in. opening over all. Width, of steel, 1 ˝ in. Number of plates, four, namely: the first two No. 3, and the last two No. 4 steel. Holes apart on the top half, 3 ˝ in. Size of holes, 5/16 in. The bottom half is clipped to the head block. The hind spring is elliptic, 39 in. long, from out to out, with 9 in. opening over all. Width of steel, 1 ˝ in. Number of plates, four, namely: the first No. 2, the second No. 3, and the last two No. 4 steel. Holes apart on the top half, 3 ˝ in. Size of holes, 5/16 in. The bottom half is clipped to the axle bed. An iron stay runs from the body to the hind spring bar. Fifth wheel, 14 in. diameter. Axles, 1 1/8 in. Track, 4 ft. 7 in., from out to out.

Finish.- Painting of body and running gear, black, the latter with a broad stripe of lake. Trimming, blue cloth, of the best quality. The back and cushion are made full and soft. The trimming throughout should show a high grade of workmanship and taste. Carpet, blue, without figures. Mountings, silver.

Hub September 1884 page 414.

The new factory of Messrs. Healey, Williams & Co., on West Forty third st., New York, the characteristic features of which are indicated in the accompanying pen sketches, commends itself as one of the most modern and convenient in its arrangements, and includes features which are likely to be quite new to many of our readers.

This is a representative city factory of large dimensions, in which special attention has been given to economizing ground space, and gaining the maximum degree of light. We beg, however, to suggest that any of our readers who contemplate building a small factory, or one to be located in a village where ground space is of secondary consequence, will not for these reasons consider our description of this factory irrelevant to their needs; for the general principles involved in the construction of modern American carriage factories are substantially the same in all cases, whether the factory be large or small, metropolitan or suburban, including the following as leading requisites, namely: (1) arrangement of the different mechanical departments in such a manner that there shall be economy of time and labor in passing carriages through the works; (2) suitable stairways and elevators; (3) ample provisions against fire; (4) the admission of all possible daylight, and its introduction at the points where it is most needed, especially over the anvils of the blacksmiths, whose work demands good light quite as much as that of other mechanics, but whose wants in this respect are too seldom respected; (5) the most perfect possible arrangement for accommodating the painters and varnishers, including a location exempt from dust, jar, smoke and interruption by callers, suitable light, heat and ventilation, and provisions to exclude dust and flies; and (6) an ample and attractive show room, in which fine vehicles, as an article of luxury, may be displayed to the best possible advantage.

All the above conditions have evidently been duly weighed and attended to by the designers of this six story brick building, completed in April last, which was planned and supervised in every detail by Mr. Healey, of the firm, and which includes the latest and most approved machinery and labor saving appliances of every kind. The consideration of the details of such a city factory cannot but prove more instructive than that of numerous smaller or suburban shops, as it naturally embraces all the requisites of the latter, besides many others of less or greater consequence, which depend upon the limitations of confined area and interruption of light caused by adjacent buildings.

The plot of ground which the builders had at their disposal in this instance, measured 100 feet front by 115 feet 5 inches deep, surrounded on three sides by buildings. It was requisite, therefore, to depend for light on windows front and rear; and, owing to the high price of real estate and the growing requisites of the business, it was deemed advisable to occupy the entire ground space.

The first point to which we desire to call attention is the admirable manner in which the space was utilized without prejudice to the question of light.

The building is divided at the center by a heavy fire wall, with two twelve foot openings on each floor, fitted with heavy iron doors. By closing these doors complete separation of the two halves of the building may be effected, making each as distinct as if it were under a separate roof; and the proprietors have made it an imperative rule that all these fire doors shall be closed every night. The engine, boilers, elevator, and all power machinery are confined to the Eastern division of the building, thus largely reducing the danger of loss in case of fire.

A steam elevator, 14 x 7 3/4 feet, with a lifting capacity of 5,000 lbs., runs from the basement to the roof. An attachment is added so that it can be worked by hand in case of accident or when the steam is off. This attachment was devised by Mr. Healey, and is very simple, consisting of a spurred wheel affixed to the end of the direct working shaft, and operated by an endless chain belt and double cranks. It can be attached or detached in a very few minutes, and is both simple and effective. So far as we are aware, this is the first arrangement of the kind that has ever been used in connection with a power elevator, and it will doubtless prove very handy in emergencies.

There are two stairways, one of which runs up the face of the elevator shaft, and thus economizes floor space; the second is located against the west wall. These two stairways, in addition to two iron fire escapes on the rear exterior wall, insure ample means of egress in case of fire.

A brick chute, built in the central wall of the building, supplemented by an iron door on each floor, furnishes convenient means of disposing of shavings, rubbish and sweepings, which are thus easily conveyed to the basement, and each day fed to the boilers.

The provisions against fire include a large iron water tank, located just under the roof, which is supplied by a force pump from the engine room, and leads water to every story, together with the Harden hand grenades (glass balls filled with chemicals), which are placed within convenient reach of the workmen, and numerous iron water buckets. Running water is found on every floor, and water closets and urinals on each alternate floor.

We will now briefly describe each separate story, together with such special machinery and labor saving devices as seem most likely to interest our readers.


The basement is 13 feet in height, with excellent light throughout, introduced from bulkhead windows in front, a glass dome at the rear, and light shafts at the sides. Reference to the front elevation, Fig, 1, will show the manner in which light is introduced from above, all along the front of the basement; while Fig. 2 shows that at the rear, where the iron work is forged, direct daylight from a glass dome, 20 x 90 feet, is introduced to every blacksmith's forge and anvil and every fitter's bench.

The floors of the basement are made perfectly water tight, by 5 inches of concrete, covered by 2 inches of Portland cement; while steam coils insure warmth and dryness, and two shafts, containing six windows on each floor, furnish further light and ventilation from the two sides.

Two steel boilers, of 50 horse power each, together with the coal and oil vaults, are all located outside the building and under the sidewalk, thus economizing ground space in the basement, and largely avoiding dust and danger from fire.

The engine is a 50 horse power prize engine, bought at the last American Institute Fair, made by the Lambertville Engine and Machine Works, of Lambertville, New Jersey. It is simple, compact, supplied with a patent automatic cut off, and can be worked from 1 to 50 horse power as may be desired, thus economizing steam. This engine is located under the driveway, in close proximity to the boilers.

The smith shop will accommodate 18 forges, which are blown by steam. Those now in use are of iron, and made after a special pattern designed by Mr. Williams, of the firm. The distinguishing characteristics of the design, are as follows; each one is complete in itself, including the fire bed, coal and water boxes and smoke bonnet, and it is portable. Special attention was paid to the flues, which are 12 x 14 inches, carefully lined up on the inside, So that a perfect draught is obtained, and little or no smoke enters the room.

A gas tire heater is to be used. A lead bath had been thought of for this purpose, but, after careful investigation, the idea was relinquished on the ground of expense in daily heating it. With a large and uniform number of tires to he heated daily, the firm think the lead bath would prove both effective and economical; but the gas heater has the special advantage of being always ready for immediate use, while all expense attending that use ceases the moment the work is completed.

A clever device for saving labor in drilling tires, forms a noteworthy feature of this department. The wheel is suspended, and made to revolve in the course of the operation of drilling, thus avoiding the laborious operation of lifting the wheel on and off the supporting arms, as is necessary with other drills. This was devised by Mr. Healey. The above, together with other power drills, emery wheels, lathes, etc., constitute the machinery of the smith shop.


The ground floor is mainly devoted to the office, stock room and carriage wareroom. All the front windows on this floor are of double pane plate glass, as shown in Fig. 1.

Near the entrance is a Buffalo Scale Co. scale, with a capacity of five tons, which is utilized for weighing not only the carriages constructed, but all coal and materials bought by weight. Adjoining this is the washing platform, which is made with double flooring, seamed and calked. All the floors in the building are of Georgia pine, laid transversely, with tarred paper between the two.

The stock rooms, 12 ˝ x 60 feet, is conveniently fitted up with shelving and tables, and in this is kept all the small stock. Speaking tubes connect the office with each mechanical department in the works, and there is also telephone connection by private wire with the firm's repository, at Nos. 1476 and 1478 Broadway, near the corner of 42d street.

The wareroom occupies one half of this floor. It is finished with Georgia pine, oiled and shellaced, giving a plain but cleanly appearance, and one appropriate to the business. The shades are of Holland, sage colored, and suspended on automatic spring rollers.

The carriage entrance, shown at about the center of Fig. 1, is provided with a single door, 11 feet wide by 12 feet high, and weighing 900 lbs., which is suspended by balance weights on pulleys; and it can be raised as easily as are ordinary windows, and on the same principle. This is a great convenience in the ease of so large an opening, besides affording economy of space; and it is the first instance, we believe, in which such an arrangement has been applied to the door of a carriage factory.


The second floor is divided into a trimming and a finishing department, and includes few noteworthy features beyond convenient arrangement of the benches and the usual working appliances.

Carriages for the repair department are unhung and stripped on this second floor, which contains one hundred and twenty separate compartments in which are placed the cushions, carpets and movable articles belonging to each vehicle, and numbered according to that corresponding with the vehicle to which they belong. This system not only economizes time and prevents mistakes, but is an actual necessity in a business of this kind and size, where from three to four hundred second hand vehicles are unhung each year.


The body, gear and wheel makers occupy the third floor, which is amply supplied with convenient machinery, including a band saw jointer, splitting saw, and several small machines for shaping and dressing. On this floor, also, is the drafting room, which is 20 x 25 feet, and provided with double faced swinging blackboards, shelving, etc.

This third floor also contains an iron hot box for drying joints before gluing, a steam glue pot, and a gas panel bender.


The fourth floor is mainly devoted to seasoning and storing timber and working the same, and contains a capacious steam dry room, a hub-boxing machine, the largest cylinder planer yet built, and a large stock of timber in various stages of seasoning.

The dry room, 14 x 20 feet, is furnished with the latest conveniences for seasoning timber, including the coil system of steam heating, a cold air pipe near the floor, and a 6 inch exit pipe.


The fifth floor is mainly devoted to the painting of gears, and also contains the color mixing room and stock room for colors.


This upper floor is entirely devoted to the painting and finishing of bodies, and is particularly noteworthy for its convenient arrangement and perfection of details.

The body varnish room, 25 feet square, is partitioned off from the body paint room, and has six windows, four of which have a northern exposure and two an easterly exposure, affording excellent light. The gear varnish room is of similar size, and has a northern and western exposure. Both these varnish rooms are provided with fibrous ventilating screens, furnished by the Protective Ventilator Co., of New York city; and rubber weather strips are introduced around the windows and doors to prevent dust and draughts of air.

The floors of both are laid with Wootton's concrete, and there are drains at the corners connecting with the main sewer, to prevent the accumulation of water.

The walls and ceiling are plastered, and have a hard finish. There are no cupboards in either room, nor in fact anything to accumulate dirt or dust. The clothing of the workmen is contained in closets outside. Leading off from the body varnish room is a dark room, 12 x 20 feet. Bodies are passed into the former direct from the hands of the rubber; and, when finished, these are immediately rolled into the dark room to dry. The latter has rolling doors leading into the main floor, and from this dark room the varnished work passes on to the finishing room and to a lifting arrangement designed for the application of wheels, which is an ingenious contrivance, by which one than man easily elevate any carriage body, while the wheels are brought from the opposite room and placed under the body.


A new and novel feature of this factory, showing further attention to economy of space, is the roof, which is partly floored over, and directly reached by the elevator, so that the largest carriage can be raised to the roof and the same utilized for drying purposes, especially in the painting processes.

The history of the business concern occupying this model factory well deserves extended notice; but in this connection we will only say that the house was established in 1849 by Mr. William Williams, who is probably the oldest active carriage builder now doing business in New York City. He possesses a gold medal which was awarded to his work by the American Institute Fair, of this city, as early as 1850, and he has held an Honored place among New York's leading carriage builders ever since that time. The specialty of the house is medium and heavy work of the finest grades, mostly to order, including chiefly gentlemen's driving phaetons, victories, cabriolets, coupes, broughams, landaus, coaches, etc. Their repair business is also large, and they enjoy the reputation of having no superiors in this line of work. For convenience and economy, their new work and jobbing are divided into two distinct departments, with different corps of workmen, in all shops excepting the painting.

Their repository on Broadway is one of the most attractive in this country. In outward appearance it resembles a bank. It is 60 feet front by 110 feet deep, four stories high, and accommodates about one hundred and forty vehicles. The interior finish is plain and neat, the walls being painted in neutral tints, such as pearl grays, the object being to avoid reflection of colors on the varnished surfaces. The same idea is carried to the ceilings and the window shades, which are also in gray. Utility, rather than show, has evidently been the aim of the firm in both factory and repository. The repository office bears the same marks of simplicity in its finish, but includes all the best modern appointments.

Carriage Monthly September 1889 page 157-159

In the United States section of the Exposition in Paris, but two carriage builders exhibited a variety of styles, the largest being that of Messrs. Healey & Co., of New York, who had on display seven carriages and a sleigh, all of which attracted considerable attention, particularly the road wagons with stiff poles; a noteworthy fact is that this house made the largest display, all of the largest houses of Paris showing but five styles each. Their exhibit was as follows: two passenger sleigh, Sedan brougham, one man road wagon, two passenger road wagon, leather top landau, surrey phaeton, cabriolet, and a C spring Victoria.

The sleigh attracted much attention, being extremely well finished. The upper side quarters had well designed scrolls; wire screens were on the front of the runners, and the footman's saddle pleased the foreign builders.

The brougham is original, its form and details differing entirely front the others on exhibition. The coupe pillar has one width from the top to within 6 inches of the bottom door line, ending with a well formed scroll at the front. The deep door frame of 28 inches indicates deeper panels for the next season than on the regular styles of broughams, the latter being made but 24 to 25 inches in depth. The side quarters are 14 inches deep, while the most, previously given, has been but 12 ˝ inches. The door windows are very small, and an entire change from the present fashion. The shape of the boot is almost the same as the Barker style The suspension as usual, with the exception of full elliptic springs back and wooden pump-handles.

The road wagons were of the latest style, and suspended on side bars; both were constructed alike, excepting that the one carrying but one person was made very light and neat, while the two passenger one had the ordinary dimensions. These vehicles attracted more attention from visitors than all the mail coaches; the fine workmanship and rare finish of all the details were greatly admired, and gave the impression to all that for light work the United States could not be excelled, and had reached a standard of excellence.

A very pleasing design was shown in the landau with leather top, an original American style, made but for few years past, only one of the sane pattern being shown, in the French section.

The sides of the body of the surrey phaeton were molded, and partly rounded, and it had stick seats with center rail, both rails being bent. The top rails were trimmed with a very light roll, sidebar suspension and regular cross spring, two perches and half fifth wheel.

The cabriolet differs slightly from the regular style, having a full panel, divided with a horizontal molding, and the upper panel molded with four moldings. There was an entire change in the style of the boot from those shown in the French section, it being of the antique pattern. The suspension front is with full elliptic springs, and back elliptic scroll springs, the lower front end fastened to the body. The fenders front and back showed a change from those in fashion at the present time.

The Victoria, suspended on eight springs with rumble, is of the latest style, and only differed from those in the French section in minor details.

Built by Healey & Co., New York, New York.
Carriage Monthly September 1889.
also reported in the Hub July 1889 page 267.

This sleigh is partly original; it has ogee back pillars; sawed or bent stuff can be used; bent bottom sides, moldings worked on solid, the back and side panels 5/16 inch, placed into grooves; carving cut and glued against the panel. The sides can also be made of solid stuff, the moldings and carving worked on solid, which is less labor. Size of runners 1˝ inches square, bent in one piece, paneled in front for the dash. Width of body at the front scroll 36 inches; at the bottom 34 inches. Width of body at its widest part 44 inches, and 39 inches on the back panel near the top scroll. Amount of turn under each side 5 inches; height of body from the floor 18˝ inches. Saddle 16 by 10 inches, 32 inches from the floor.

Runners 1˝ inches square, and shoes 1˝ by 3/8 inch. Side screens 6˝ inches wide. Track 39 inches, and on top of dash 34 inches.

Painting.- Upper panels, cream white; lower panels, bright lake. Moldings a darker shade. Carving on side quarter panels, gold. Runners and stays, bright lake, striped a broad line of gold.

Trimming.- Back, cushion and fall, deep brown plush, with striped lace to match the color. Finish of the back shown on the illustration. Sides plain, with a light roll. Cushions, of which there are two, made up in squares, and driving cushion made up soft, with rolls each side and squares between. Rolls on side rails. Footman's saddle and foot rests covered with tiger skirl. Plumes to match the color of the lower side panels. Mountings. Silver.

Exhibited by Messrs. Healey & Co., New York.
also reported in the Hub July 1889 page 267.

The Sedan brougham is the most original in form of all the carriages in the entire Exposition, and the attention of the carriage-builders was greatly drawn to its characteristics. The application of a scroll on the coupe pillar, having the same shape and finish as scroll ends on pump handles and ends of beds, gave an original finish to the vehicle. The door glass frames are very small, as compared with those on other broughams, the space between the door pillars, in which the glass frames slide, is only 15 1/4 inches; the depth from the fence rail to under the top rail is 21 inches, which makes the space for the glass frame about 15 1/4 by 19 1/4 inches. The characteristics of the body consist principally in the deep door panels, which are 28 ˝ inches, the side quarter panels having a depth of 14 ˝ inches; the height from the belt rail to the top rail is 29 inches, and 7 inches from the belt rail to the fence rail. These dimensions are so different from those made at present as to render the body unique in appearance. The door pillars have a thickness front of 2 3/4 inches, and back 2 3/8 inches. The metal door moldings start from the bottom door molding to the top rail on the front and back door joints. To do this the thickness of the door molding must be routered down and made narrower, the same as is always done on door moldings around the glass frame. If this was not done, the moldings would appear too large. The front is divided by a narrow pillar, 1 ˝ inches, the me as in all Barker broughams, dividing the frames, which drop inches down in the berths, and the door frames their entire height, also, there must be two moldings, one on each coupe pillar, 3/4 inch from inside edge.

The shape of the boot is similar to those on Barker broughams, the top panel of built up wood. Size of moldings on lower part of body, 7/8 inch wide and 3/8 inch scant thick, the shape of the back molding being also similar to the Barker brougham. The bracket front is beaded with 5/16 inch half-round beads.

The suspension is as usual; full elliptic springs front and back; the axles are straight front and cranked back. Pump handles of wood, made from 2 ˝ inch ash, and shaped to 1 3/4 inches, the width of the springs, and let into the bottom sides. The cross bar is mortised into the pump handles, and is 1 5/8 inches square. The dimensions are as follows: diameter of wheels, 37 by 48 inches, without the tires; diameter of hubs, 6 by 8 inches long; hub bands, 3 7/8 inches diameter by 2 ˝ inches long; back bands, 5 1/4 inches inside diameter; width of spokes at square end, 1 5/8 inches, 10 front and 12 back; stagger, 3/8 inch; tire, 1 3/8 by 3/8 inch.

Springs. Front, full elliptic, 38 inches from centers of bolts, 9 ˝ inches open from out to out; width of steel, 1 3/4 inches; number of leaves four, the first No. 2, and the others No. 3 steel. Back, full elliptic, 39 inches from centers of bolts, 9 ˝ inches open from out to out; width of steel, 1 3/4 inches; number of leaves four, the first No. 2, and the others No. 3 steel. Collinge axle, 1 5/16 inches at square end ; width of track from out to out, 4 feet front, and 4 feet 10 inches back. Outside diameter of fifth wheel, 20 inches. Weight about 1,025 pounds.

Painting. Body: lower panels, deep green; moldings, upper part above belt rail and boot, black, striped a fine line of white on the inside edge of moldings. Carriage part: deep blue, striped a 3/8 inch stripe of white.

Trimming. Blue morocco and cloth. Back, one row of squares on top, and pipes 1 ˝ inches from the top of cushion, which is the latest Paris style. Two cushions made up in squares, and striped silk lace fronts. Fall edged with lace, the balance plain. Side squabs and upper back, diamonds, and top lining plain. Pockets on side squabs from one end to the other, and 2 1/4 inches above the tops of cushions. The dickey seat is trimmed over wooden frames the same as usual, and its edges bound with patent leather. Two raisers on fall, 3/8 inch each, shape circular or bead like, ˝ inch from edge, and the other 1 ˝ inches from the edge of fall. Carpet plain blue. Carpet or rubber mat for the front.

Mountings. Silver.

Plate No. 43. ROAD WAGON.
Exhibited by Messrs. Healey & Co., New York.
Also reported in the Hub August 1889 page 341 Plates 37 and 38.

Two light vehicles were exhibited by the above firm, one a speed-wagon for carrying one person, with side bars and without end springs, three bow top and two light perches; the other exactly the same in construction, with the exception of heavier dimensions and carrying two persons; for this reason we will illustrate but one, and give the difference in dimensions. The style oŁ the body, and in fact the entire construction of these vehicles, is the same as made in most first class shops, but the minor details were very, carefully finished. The material was all of the very best quality of American growth and manufacture.

Dimensions for one man speeding wagon: diameter of wheels, 44 by 46 inches; diameter of hubs, 3 inches by 6 ˝ inches long; front bands, 2 inches diameter inside and 1 ˝ inches long. Width of spokes at square end, 7/8 inch, 14 spokes front and back. Thickness and depth of rims, 1 by 13/16 inch; stagger, ˝ inch; tire, 5/8-inch half round edges by 1/16 inch fall thick.

Springs; Front, 20 inches long from centers of bolts; opening from out to out, 1 ˝ inches; width of steel, 1 1/8 inches; number of leaves, three, first No. 2, second No. 3, and third No. 4 steel. Back, 20 inches long from centers of bolts; opening from out to out, 1 ˝ inches; width of steel, 1 1/8 inches; number of leaves, three; first and second No. 2, the third No. 3 steel. Axles, 5/8 inch at square end; width of track from out to out, 48 inches.

Length of body, 51 inches long at bottom; side panels, 8 1/4 inches deep; raisers, 2 ˝ inches deep. Width of body at bottom, 17 inches, and on top of panels, 17 ˝ inches; end flares ˝ inch to the foot. Width of seat on bottom, 20 inches; on top 25 inches, making 2 ˝ inches flare on each side. Side bars 3/4 inch curve at bottom surface, and bolster bars 1/4 inch raise at each end. Weight complete about 147 pounds.

Painting.- Body: black. Carriage part: green, striped two fine lines of vermilion, glazed with carmine.

Trimming. Green cloth. The back and cushion made up in diamonds. A very light raiser for cushion front, and a very light roll on top of back, its top well rounded, the sharp round corners being avoided. The sides of seat trimmed plain. Fall plain, bound with patent leather. Movable back curtain; plain green carpet. Mountings. Silver.

Dimensions for road wagon: diameter of wheels, 46 by 48 inches; diameter of hubs, 3 3/16 inches by 6 ˝ inches long; bands 2 3/16 inches diameter by 1 3/4 inches long. Width of spokes, 1 inch at square end, fourteen in number for each wheel. Thickness and depth of rims, 7/8 by 1 inch; stagger, ˝ inch; tire, 3/4 inch half round edge by 1/8 inch thick. The dimensions for springs and axles are same as regular measurements for carrying two passengers. Weight about 240 pounds.

Painting. Body : black. Carriage part: deep lake, striped with two fine lines of carmine, 5/16 inch apart.

Trimming.- Green cloth. Back and cushion made up in biscuits; 7/8 inch raiser on cushion facing and fall; patent leather welts for cushion, and binding for fall. Bows covered with patent leather, no handles on dash, stationary back curtain, and plain green carpet.

Mountings. Silver.

Exhibited by Messrs. Healey & CO., New York.
also reported in the Hub July 1889 page 267.

This landau is an American style, many of them having been made during the past few years, and attracted considerable attention at the exposition, there being but one other similar to it shown, which was by Leon Faurax, of Lyons. The side quarters had very pleasing curves, the drop center also having the same form given by us in our fashion plates and working drafts during the past year, with the exception of the door joints, which are curved, while ours have been made straight. The belt rail corresponds with the main sweep of the side quarters. The shape of the turn under is convex on top and concave on the bottom, starting from the lower molding of the side quarters. The moldings are 7/8 inch wide, and the door molding of metal, the same as on broughams; the doors have the regular flappers to holdup the glass frames. The glass in the back is small and stationary, and at the front it is made to drop level with the cross fence rail. The glass frame slides in leather, made by the trimmer for the purpose; the top of the frame enters into the top bow, which is made deep enough to suit the depth of the glass frame. The style of the boot is very pleasing, and is the regular style adopted by the American carriage builders and also those of Paris. The suspension in front is the same as generally made, but back two full elliptic springs are used instead of coach platform springs. The pump-handles are of wood, and are not as well swept as they should be for the latest fashion.

The following are the dimensions: Diameter of wheels 37 by 48 inches; diameter of front hubs, 6 by 8 inches long; front bands 4 1/8 inches diameter by 2 ˝ inches long; back bands 4 3/4 inches inside diameter by 1 inch long. Diameter of back hub 6 1/4 inches by 8 inches long; front band 4 3/8 by 2 ˝ inches long, and back band 5 inches diameter by 1 inch long. Width of spokes 1 5/5 inches. Thickness and depth of rims 1 5/8 by 1 3/4 inches. Number of spokes front, ten, and back, twelve; stagger, ˝ inch. Tires 1 3/8 by 7/16 inch, round edge.

Springs. Front, full elliptic, 39 inches long from centers of bolts; 9 ˝ inches open from out to out; width of steel 1 3/4 inches; number of leaves five, first plate No. 2, the others No. 3 steel. Back, full elliptic, 40 inches long from center to center of bolts; 9 1/4 inches open from out to out; width of steel 1 3/4 inches wide; number of plates four, first two plates No. 2, the others No. 3 steel. Collinge axles, 1 3/8 inches at square end; track front from out to out 4 feet 6 inches, and back 4 feet 10 inches.

Width across boot at front 31 inches; width across front of body at belt rail 42 inches; across front door joint 51 ˝ inches; back door joint 52 inches; across back 43 inches. Amount of turn under 4 inches each side, and its shape is convex below belt rail and concave below side quarters.

Painting. Body: panels, medium shade of lake, and boot black. Carriage part : a lighter shade of lake. Striping one broad line of black.

Trimming. Maroon morocco and cloth, made up in diamonds; figured maroon lace is used throughout. The dickey seat made of wooden frames, and covered with heavy cloth and patent leather welts. Fall bound with leather, and raisers, of which there are two, form round 3/8 inch wide beads. Carpet maroon without figures, and bound with patent leather. Mountings. Silver.

Exhibited by Messrs. Healey & CO., New York.
Also reported in the Hub August 1889 page 342 plate 39.

The body of this phaeton has plain panels, finished with light moldings around the edges, stick seats front and back, bent rails, very light center rail, and medallions on sides. The suspension is the same as usual, side bars and four cross springs. Diameter of wheels 44 by 48 inches; diameter of hubs 4 inches; hub bands 2 7/8 inches diameter by 2 inches long; back bands 3 1/4 inches diameter by 3/4 inch long. Size of spokes 1 1/16 inches on square ends; number of spokes, fourteen back and front ; stagger, ˝ inch. Thickness and depth of rims, 1 1/16 by 1 1/8 inches; tire, 1 by 3/8 inch.

Springs Front, Brewster patent; length, from centers of bolts or holes, 37 inches ; 2 1/4 inches opening from out to out; width of steel 1 3/8 inches; five plates first plate No. 2, the next three plates, and fifth plate No. 4 steel, Back, Brewster patent; length from centers of bolt holes 37 inches, 2 ˝ inches opening from out to out; width of steel 1 3/8 inches; six plates, first plate No. 2, the next four No. 3, and the sixth plate No. 4 steel.

Width of body at bottom 34 inches; at top 36 inches; flare each side 1 inch. Width of seats at bottom 38 inches; at top 41 inches; flare each side 1 ˝ inches. Track from out to out 4 feet 8 inches.

Painting.- Body: deep green, moldings black, striped a fine line of yellow. Seats black. Carriage part: a shade lighter green, striped two 1/8 inch lines of yellow, 1/4 inch apart.

Trimming. Drab cloth. Cushion a made over wooden frames, and trimmed plain; soft tufted driver's cushion, roll on seat rails. One half lazy back on front, and full length on back seat, 7 inches wide, tufted in squares. Leather welts throughout. Falls plain, bound with leather. Carpet to match the drab cloth. Weight, 370 pounds. Mountings. Silver.

Plate No. 46. CABRIOLET.
Exhibited by Messrs. Healey & Co., New York.
also reported in the Hub July 1889 page 267.

There is considerable difference in the above plate from those made at present. The main curve of the body is nearer to a compass sweep, and the surface across the side panels is much in excess of those now manufactured. The upper part of the side panels are divided up with a horizontal molding, and four moldings ranging with the shape of the back pillar. The boot is similar to that of the brougham of antique style, and harmonizes with the body. Fenders over the back wheels are dispensed with, and side fenders on the front bows revived. Front fenders also have a different shape from those made at present. The suspension front is the same as usual, and back scroll elliptic; the front bottom main leaf is stationary to the bottom of body, working around the bolt, which is original on cabriolets, although it has been so made on Victoria phaetons.

Diameter of wheels 34 by 46 inches; diameter of hubs, 5 3/4 inches by 7 ˝ inches long; diameter of front bands 5 3/4 inches by 21/4 inches long. Back bands 4 ˝ by 1 inch; back hubs 1/4 inch heavier. Width of spokes 1 9/16 inches at square end, ten in front and twelve bark. Thickness and depth of rims 1 ˝ by 1 9/16 inches, stagger ˝ inch, and tire 1 1/4 by 5/16 inch. Collinge axles, 1 1/4 inches at square end; track, front, 3 feet 8 inches, and back 4 feet 8 inches.

Width of boot 31 inches. Width of body at widest part 50 inches, back 42 inches. Amount of turn under, 6 inches each side.

Painting.- Body: main panels, deep green; molding and boot black. Carriage part: one shade lighter than main panels, striped with two full 1/8 inch lines of yellow. Moldings on body striped one fine line of yellow at edge of moldings.

Trimming. Green morocco and cloth. Style, diamonds; side pockets over the whole side quarters; striped silk lace throughout. Sliding child's seat, and apron fastened back of dickey seat. Dickey-seat trimmed same as made for Barker brougham. Carpet plain green.

Mountings. Silver.

Carriage Monthly July 1890 page 112.

One of the boldest changes ever made on brougham bodies, was originated by Messrs. Healey & Co., New York city, and exhibited at the late exposition in Paris. In our report of this exposition we stated: "The greatest originality was displayed on a brougham with a door panel of 28 ˝ inches depth, a very bold change, which will lead other carriage builders to change their future styles into deeper doors and side panels." It is less than a year since this was written, but the changes indicated have been verified, our best builders having copied almost all of the characteristics of the Sedan brougham. Of course, when such changes are adopted, a difference is also made in the details, even in outlines from the original, to suit the taste of the various builders, but with even those changes the characteristics of the original Sedan brougham have not been effaced.

One of our best builders adopted the deep door panels of 28 inches, and the deep space of 7 inches from the belt rail to the fence-rail, making the depth of the glass frame only 20 inches, the depth of side quarters 12 3/4 inches, instead of 14 inches, and discarded the Sedan coupe pillars, replacing them with those of the Barker style. Others have copied it, leaving most of its originality, including the coupe pillars. This is an American style, and differs considerably from the Peter's and Barker broughams; its appearance is exceedingly heavy, but this is considered an advantage by many for various reasons....

Colored Plate. SEDAN BROUGHAM.
Hub February 1891 page 868.

This is an accurate representation of the now famous design known as the "Sedan Brougham," which helped to win for Messrs. Healey and Company, New York, New York, a gold medal and decoration of the Legion of Honor at the Paris Exposition of 1889. Text from December 1890, page 700. Among the novel features of this carriage is the application of a scroll to the bottom of the coupe pillar, having the same form and finish as those on the ends of the pump handles and the bent beds of the front gearing, showing the continuity or "balance" of design in this vehicle. Another departure is the application of the double light in the front of the body, which, although a revival of what may be called the "antique," has a pleasant effect in this design.

Another important change noticeable is the great depth of door panel, which makes a rich and imposing effect from the fact that it gives a large area of unbroken surface for painting. The outlines of the boot are entirely novel, and produce a most pleasing effect. Messrs. Healey & Company, considering that they have sufficiently characterized this form of brougham of 1888, have made application to the Patent Office for a copyright on the design.

The rockers are 1 5/8 inches thick, halved together, with contraction and inclination. The door is cut through, and the bottomsides are made of bent wood with the upper pillars spliced on. The roof panel is made of built up material and glued on.

The quarter and lower back panels are 5/16 inch thick, and the other body panels 3/8 inch. The boot is framed straight of 1 ˝ inch ash, and paneled with 3/8 inch whitewood. The deck panel is 5/16 inch thick. The wooden pump handles are made of 2 ˝ inch ash, and are let into the bottomsides. There is a 1 5/8 inch square cross bar at center of springs. The front glass frames fall 8 inches, and the door frames their entire height.

Dimensions of Woodwork Width of body on top, 52 inches; at bottom, 40 inches. Width of seat on top, 41 inches. Length of body, 45 inches. Rocker plates, 3 x 3/8 inches, fastened with No. 20 screws. Height of wheels: front, 35 inches; and rear, 47 inches. Depth of rims, 1 5/8 inches. Size of spokes, 1 5/8 inches. Number of spokes, 10 and 12. Stagger of spokes, 5/8 inch. Front hubs, 6 inches diameter, and 8 inches long. Front bands for front hubs, 3 7/8 inch diameter, and 2 ˝ inches long. Back bands for rear hubs, 5 1/4 inches diameter, and 1 inch long.

Dimensions of Ironwork Front springs, 36 inches long, from out to out, with 9 ˝ inches opening over all. Width of steel, 1 3/4 inches. Number of leaves, five, namely: Nos. 2, 2, 3, 3 and 3 steel. Holes apart on top half, 3 ˝ inches. Size of holes, 3/8 inch. Rear springs, 38 inches long, from out to out, with 9 3/4 inches opening over all. Width of steel, 1 3/4 inches. Number of leaves; five, namely: Nos. 2, 2, 3, 3 and 3 steel. Axles : front, 1 1/4 inches; and rear, 11/4 inches. Tire, 1 3/8 inches. Track, rear, measured outside to outside, 4 feet. Diameter of fifth wheel, 20 inches. Weight of vehicle complete, about 1,025 lbs.

Painting Panels, blue. Moldings, black. Striping, broad line of white on gearing, and one fine line of white on edge of moldings.

Trimming Blue morocco and cloth. Mountings, silver.

Hub August 1889 page 342.

This body is framed similar to that of all bodies of this class, excepting that the bottomsides, arm rails and pillars are made of bent stock.

Dimensions of Woodwork. Width of body on top, 50 in.; at bottom, 38 in. Width of seat on top, 43 in. Length of body, 48 in. Rocker. plates, 2 in., fastened with No. 18 screws. Height of wheels: front, 34 in.; and rear, 46 in. Depth of rims, 1 9/16 in. Size of spokes, 1 9/16 in. Number of spokes, 10 and 12. Stagger of spokes, ˝ in. Front hubs, 5 ˝ in, diameter, and 7 ˝ in. long. Front bands for front hubs, 3 5/8 in. diameter, and 2 ˝ in. long. Rear hubs, 5 5/8 in, diameter and 7 ˝ in, long. Front bands for rear hubs, 3 3/4 in. diameter, and 2 ˝ in. long.

Dimensions of Ironwork. Front under springs, 32 in. long, from out to out, with 3 ˝ in. opening over all. Width of steel, 1 3/4 in. Number of leaves, four, namely: all No. 2 steel. Front C springs. Width of steel, 1 3/4 in. Number of leaves, five, namely: Nos. 2, 2, 2, 2 and 3 steel. Rear under springs, 34 in. long, from out to out, with 4 in. Opening overall. Width of steel, 1 3/4 in. Number of leaves, four, namely: all No. 2 steel. Rear C springs. Width of steel, 1 3/4 in. Number of leaves, six, namely. Nos. 1, 2, 2, 2, 2 and 2 steel. Axles, front, 1 1/4 in. Axles, rear, 1 1/4 in. Tire, 1 1/4 in. Track, rear, measured outside to outside on the ground, 4 ft. 10 in. Track, front, measured outside to outside, 4 ft, 10 in. Diameter of fifth wheel, 20 in.

Painting. Panels, dark blue; gearing, lighter shade of blue. Striping on gearing, one broad line of blue, edged with fine lines of lighter blue. Mountings, silver.

Trimming. Blue morocco and cloth. Back stuffed full and made up in diamond form. Quarters plaited, and cushions made high and in diamond form, Blue figured lace used throughout. Outside seats trimmed in blue cloth and made plain with patent leather welts. Plain blue carpet.

New York's Leading Industries published 1885, page 227.

C. Loos & Co., Carriage Manufacturers, Nos. 223 and 225 West 96th Street.- The carriage factory of Messrs. C. Loos & Co., is one of the largest and most complete establishments of its kind in the city. The firm have been in this business for the past twenty five years, and have always been popular, maintaining a high reputation for the excellent character of the work turned out. Carriages of all kinds, phaetons, coaches, Landaus, Broughams, Cabriolets, Victorias, &c., are made to order or for stock, in the best manner and from well seasoned materials in the latest style, and are in every respect equal to those made anywhere in this section of the country. There is also a special department for repairing carriages, which is in charge of efficient workmen and is constantly under the personal supervision of the proprietor. Although the business is conducted under the firm name of C. Loos &Co., Mr. Loos is the sole member of the firm, the partnership having been dissolved some years ago. Mr. Loos carries on a large business and his workmanship is highly recommended for strength, durability and general superiority.

Who's Who in New York 6th ed., 1914 page 341.

Warren Mansfield Healey, mechanical engineer, born in Massachusetts son of Samuel and Mary Thayer (Mansfield) Healey; educated in public schools and technical schools in France. Served during the Civil War, 1861-1863; brig.-general. N. G. N. Y. 1897-1899; president of Healey & Co., Director of Hudson Trust Co., Hudson Safe Deposit Co., Chevalier Legion d'Honneur of France; member Sons of Revolution, G. A. R., N. Y. Historical Society, New England Society, New York Chamber of Commerce. Clubs: Army and Navy, Union League. Address 1658 Broadway, New York City. Plate No. 720. Healey's Shop, New York City from the Carriage Monthly August 1903.