LIST OF COACH LACE AND LIVERY LACE WEAVERS
Prepared by Susan Green, Librarian © 2007
455 Coal Mountain Road
Orwigsburg, Pennsylvania 17961
Please contact Susan Green if you can add information and names to the list.
MANUFACTURES OF COACH LACE
Coach Lace Industry in the United States of America
The making of coach lace appears as a small home industry scattered over several sections of eastern United States around the 1800’s. Some of these small home industries coexist with more sophisticated manufacturers up until about the 1860’s. One or two small manufacturers were known to have a specialty trade of making custom orders to about the 1880’s. By the 1900’s there were only 5 manufacturers making coach lace in the United States: Bridgeport Coach Lace Company, Bridgeport, Connecticut (established 1837) – Wm. Horstmann, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (established 1816) – New York Coach Lace Company, New York, New York – Schaefer and Schlegel, Rochester, New York, Vogt Manufacturing and Coach Lace Company, Rochester, New York.
The United States census of 1860 reported 6 establishments that specialized in making coach lace exclusively, three were in Connecticut, two in New York, and one in New Jersey. (Listed else where in the census were such companies as the Wm. Horstmann of Philadelphia who was a large manufacture of coach lace and other types of trims, for dresses, uniforms, home and carriages).
The six establishments had an aggregate capital $42,800 devoted to this manufacture, and it employed altogether 96 persons, of whom 16 were females, at a total annual cost for wages of $32,364, and for material, (including 1,305 pounds of raw silk,) of $28,987. The value of coach lace made was $89,200. Of these amounts, $40,000 in capital, 62 male and all the female hands were returned by three establishments in Connecticut, which also reported $78,000 of the total products as the yearly value of their manufactures. These factories consumed 1,131 pounds of raw silk, costing, with all other materials, $24,087, and paid for labor $27,504. Two of these establishments were in Bridgeport, [E. K. Mills Company and Coach Lace Company] and with 50 hands, of whom 9 were females, produced coach lace and trimmings to the value of $55,000, and the same articles were made at Hartford [unknown factory] to a considerable amount. Two in New York [Bartholomew Delapierre and Hayden and Letchworth] made coach lace to the value of $2,400; and one in New Jersey, [unknown factory] employing 15 hands, produced a value of $8,800.1
#est capital raw silk cost of raw male female annual cost annual value
invested used materials of labor of product
CT 3 $40,000 1,131 $24,087 62 16 $27,504 $78,000
NY 2 $1,200 40 $905 3 $846 $2,400
NJ 1 $1,606 134 $4,000 15 $4,020 $8,800
total 6 $42,000 1,305 $28,887 80 16 $32,370 $89,200
Alfred Bailey – lace weaver 1855-1873 West Liberty near Warren Avenue
John Booth – lace weaver 1857 may be the same person moved to New Haven, Connecticut
Bridgeport Coach Lace Company, Johns Street 1878-1899
Bridgeport Coach Lace Company, Wood Avenue 1899-1937 changed to Bridgeport Fabrics.
George Carlock2,3 1837-1845 changed to Leigh & Mills
George Bateman – lace weaver 1855 rear 132 Washington Avenue
Seaward Benson – lace weaver 1855 rear 50 lambert
Albert Brisban – lace weaver 1873
James Brown – lace weaver 1855 rear 50 Lambert
Frederick Bruen – lace weaver 1855 rear 50 Lambert
James Clark 4– lace weaver 1855-1858
Coach Lace Company – 43 John Street – 1855 – 1858 changed to William Boston agent in 1855
Robert Cunningham 1855
Levi Dart – lace weaver – East Bridgeport – 1855 – 1857
James Downs – lace weaver 1855
Delf Henry – lace weaver 1857
Robert Hitchings 1855
Charles Hull – lace weaver – 1855-1858
James D. Gould – lace weaver 1857
George Karlock – lace weaver 1857
Charles Lanslair 1855
Leigh and Mills5 about 1845-1847 changed to B. K. Mills
G. Longworth 1855
George McBride 1855
James McBride – lace weaver 1855-1858
John Mulley – lace weaver – 1857
B. (Benjamin) K. Mills & Company – sometime after 1847 – 1878 changed to Bridgeport Coach Lace Company. Thomas Mills – lace weaver – Beaver, c Courtland – 1855 – 1858
Nelson G. Palmer 1855
Thomas Roe – lace weaver – 1857
Charles Rinaldi 1873
Joseph Robbins 1855
Isaac Sheets – lace weaver 1855
Henry Smith 1855
Nathan Thomson 1855
Levi S. Thorp – lace weaver – 1857 also spelled Levi Thorpe
Francis Vinegetar 1855
Jacob E. Vreeland 1855
David Brothwell, 1850 census Coach Lace Weaver. MacRury, Elizabeth Banks; Banks, Elizabeth, V. H. Bank.This is Fairfield, 1639-1940; Pages from Three Hundred One Years of the Town. 1960, page 186.
George Thompson, “To church October, 1842…is a coach lace weaver by trade.” Anderews, Alfred. Memorial. Genealogy, and Ecclesiastical History. Chicago, IL : A. H. Andrews, 1867, page 398.
Unknown business for the year 1860, from 1860 census.
HUMPHREYSVILLE (later SEYMOUR), CONNECTICUT
Timothy Dwight, “born April 1, 1811, …He was a hardware merchant at New Haven, Connecticut, and manufacturer of tools (plane-irons, drawing knives, augers, etc.), at Seymour, Ct. (then Humphreysville), and also of coach lace, and afterward of cars at Chicago, Ill. Dwight, Benjamin W. History of the Descendants of John Dwight of Dedham, Massachusetts, Vol. 1. New York, NY : John f. Trow & Son, 1784, page 173.
J. B. Rose, circa 1853, “A mill for weaving coach lace, with some six operatives, owned by J. B. Rose.” Field, David D. Centennial Address. Middletown, CT : William B. Casey, 1853, page 132.
New Haven, Connecticut
John Hale Booth 1861-1879 9 Wooster Street, lace weaver, 1880 -1893 listed as manufacturer changed to E. A. Booth. In the 1888 Dockham’s J. H. Booth was listed under the “woolen goods” subheading as manufacturing “…Coach laces and carriage trimmings, 20 hand looms…” Dockham’s 68.
E. A. Booth 1893-1894 changed to Booth Coach Lace.
Booth Coach Lace 1894-1898-1900.
Gotthilf, 1899, coach lace weaver. Price & Lee’s New Haven. 1899, page 656.
Charles Guyer 1850 age 39. Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine (Vol. 33 No. 2), page 148.
Benjamin Guyer 1850 age 17. Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine (Vol. 33 No. 2), page 148.
John P. Humaston 1840-71 State, home at 94 Olive–“Fringe, tassell and silk store,” J. P. Humaston, No. 71 State Street, manufacturer of every variety of / Fringes, Cords, Tassels and Trimmings; / Among which may be found, / Ottoman, sofa, pulpit and Blind Trimmings, Plain / new, Bullion and Chenille Fringe; Float and Orris Lace; / Italian and American Sewing Silk of every colors and many / others articles usually found in a Variety Store,/ And Carriage Trimmings: / Fringe, Tufts, Tassels, Worsted, Cord by the gross or yard, and / many other things, which will be sold as low and on as good terms / as can be bought in New York or elsewhere, / orders from the country supplied at short notice. Patten’s New Haven Directory for the Year 1840 (New Haven, CT: William Storer, 1840), pages 51, 116.
John S. McCully, 1899, coach lace maker. Price & Lee’s New Haven. 1899, page 656.
James W. Newell, coach lace & fringe manufacturer, 3 Elm. Price & Lee’s New Haven. 1840, page 64.
Laban Pardee 1836 – 1858 changed to Charles H. Pardee
Charles H. Pardee, 1858 to about 1878, 98 Wooster Street, taken over by John Hale Booth.
John Pierson 1840 New Haven City Directory, 1840, page 69.
Isaac Sheads, 1850 age 33. Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine (Vol. 33 No. 2), page 149; A listing from the 7th Population Census of the US. of those natives of the Keystone State [PA] residing in New England.
Andrew Ray 1817-1824. came from Carlisle, Nicholas County, Kentucky. Insolvent Notice: Andrew Ray insolvent debtor having filed his petition to the Dearborn Circuit Court paying the benefit of the act of the General Assembly of the State of Indiana made for the relief of insolvent debtors, notice is therefore hereby given that the court will act on said petition at their Term on the second Monday in June next. James Dill Clerk April 6, 1822. The Oracle, Lawrenceburg, Indiana, June 1, 1822.
Wanted an apprentice to the Carriage Lace & Fringe Manufactory. Other branches of weaving will likewise be taught. Good encouragement as to clothing and education shall be given. One from 14 to 17 years of age would be preferred. Enquire at this office. Dec 11, 1824. Indiana Spectator, Lawrenceburg, Indiana.
Carlisle, Nicholas County, Kentucky
Andrew Ray 1817 from obituary of James M. Ray, Indianapolis News, February 23, 1881. Came from Baltimore, Maryland, moved to Lawrenceburg, Indiana.
Thomas Carr 1835, lace weaver, Richmond Street near Howard
Flynn, Emrick and Murrill [James Flynn, John P. Emrich and James H. Murrill], 1855-1865, changed to separate machine manufacturers. Flynn & Emrich at 55 Holiday and Murrill & Keiser at 44 Holiday.
Flynn, Emrick and Murrill 1855-1859, 133 north Front
Flynn, Emrick and Murrill 1859-1864 manufacturers of machinery, coach lace 55 Holiday:
James Flynn 178east Monument, John P. Emrich 194 east Monument, James H. Murrill 89 Calvert. E.M. Cross & Co. Baltimore City Business Directory
Flynn, Emrick & Co. 1860 – Coach Lace Manufacturers $20,000 capital invested; used 4,000 lbs. Of worsted and 150 lbs. of silk & cotton valued at $7,500 used steam and hand motive power; employed 16 men, 7 women; paid the men $448 average per month and $56 for the women average per month; produced an unknown quantity of carriage trimmings valued at $18,000.6 R. G. Dun stated that by June of 1857 the company had been in business for four or five years and that the principals were industrious and ingenious. They were listed as coach lace manufacturers, sold to first rate houses for cash on delivery, and purchased their supplies from outside the city. In May of 1868, the business was listed as “Flynn and Emrick,” and they were “machinists” at Holiday and Saratoga Streets. At that time a new shop was being built but was lost in a flood in August. The partnership purchased more property and rebuilt. The last report in September of 1876 gave them an estimated worth of $40,000. MD, Vol.. 4,Nno. 1066, page 313 &Vol. 11, page 157, R. G. Dun & Co., Collection, Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts.
John Gade 1801-1810 lace and fringe maker, Harrison Street.
Catherine Gade 1815-1831 changed to boarding house 18 Mercer Street
Catherine Gade 1815-1816, lace & fringe maker, 37 Harrison Street
Catherine Gade 1822-1823, widow, lace & fringe manufacture, NE corner of Second & Frederick. Catherine Gade 1827-1831, coach lace manufactory Mercer Street
John Gade 1835-1875
John Gade 1835-1849, lace and fringe maker, Gay street
John Gade 1853-1854, lace and fringe maker, North Street, dwelling 38 Holiday
John Gade 1858, 114 East Fayette home
John Gade 1869-1875, lace weaver 85e Pratt
Christopher Miller 1807-1819, coach lace and fringe, Charles street
John H. Miller, 1835-1837, coach lace, fringe cord & military trimmings manufactured, Charles street and 9 Light street.
Andrew Ray 1817 on Cove Street Baltimore City Directory came from New York moved to Carlisle, Nicholas County, Kentucky.
Peter Bense 1805 lace weaver, Summer Street
Nathaniel Blake 1796. listed in the directory as a shopkeeper rather than a manufacture at No. 56 Cornkill.
Nathaniel Blake offers textiles, hairpowder and Coach and Chaise Laces, and other Trimmings… The Massachusetts Mercury,May 27, 1796.Collection of Paul Downing
Briggs & Crafts. 1837 exhibitors of very superior Coach Lace, A Silver Medal. First Exhibition and Fair of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association at Faneuil and Quincy Halls In the City of Boston, Sept. 18, 1837. Boston, MA : Dutton and Wentworth, 1837, page 54.
Francis Daniel Crafts son of Ebenezer, born in Roxbury, Massachusetts February 27, 1814. He resided in Roxbury. From 1836 to 1849 he was engaged in the saddlery hardware business, and in the manufacture of carriage-lace. Thte style of the firm was at first Shaw, Briggs & Crafts, their store being on Dock Square. Boston, and was succeeded in 1837 by that of Briggs & Crafts. On the withdrawal of Mr. Briggs in 1842, he continued alone under the style of F. D. Crafts, his store being located on Cornhill, and afterward on the corner of Dock Square and Exchange St., Boston. On the discovery of gold in California in 1849, he went there with the early pioneers by water, but died at San Francisco, soon after his arrival, January 23, 1850, he was not married. James Monroe & William Francis Crafts. The Crafts Family: A Genealogical and Biographical History of the Descendants of Griffin and Alice Craft, of Roxbury, Mass, 1630-1890. Northampton, MA : Gazette Printing Co., 1893, page 428.
John Bright 1795-1803 changed to upholster
John Bright 1798 at Orange Street
John Bright 1803 at 44 Marlborough Street
John Bright, Advertisement of John Bright, maker of Coach Lace, offering among a long list “Chaise Carpets.” Massachusetts Mercury, December 12, 1800. Collection of Paul Downing
William Bright 1795 – 1803
William Bright at Middle Street in 1798 John and William Bright Just imported, and for sale. Beautiful crimson, blue and yellow silk and worsted, damask, crimson and green silk velvet – crimson green and yellow Harreteens – Chinese and Moreens – stipt’d, plain & figured Sattins – hair seating – yard wide Persia Carpets – Wilton & kid Wincester carpeting – bed ticks and looking glasses – by John and William Bright, At their Manufactory, No. 44, Marlborough-Street, Where the following articles are manufactured, viz. Bed-Laces; tassel & cords; hair-ribbons, superior quality. Generous allowance to those who purchase by wholesale. Upholsterers business carried on as usual. Boston, June 10, 1795 – Independent Chronicle and Universal Advertiser, No. 1525 October 22, 1795
John and William Bright, at their Coach Lace and Fringe Manufactory offer “A great variety of Coach, Chaise and Livery Laces and Fringes.”Massachusetts Mercury,July 27, 1798. Collection of Paul Downing
F. D. Crafts shortly after 1837 and before 1849. See Briggs and Crafts.
F. H. Fairbanks, (also seen as Fairbanks & Co.)1846, agent and partner for the Clinton Co., CT. Fisher’s National Magazine and Industrial Record. Vol. III New York, NY : Redwood Fisher, 1846, page 172.
James H. Foster 1796-1798
James H. Foster, “Coach Lace, Broad and narrow laces for coaches and chaise, holders, bridle reins, fringes, best Wilton Chaise Carpets, &c. For sale at Jame H. Foster’s…” The Massachusetts Mercury,June 21, 1796. Collection of Paul Downing
James H. Foster, New Manufactory of Coach and Chaise Lace, Fringes, &c. James H. Foster, Respectfully informs his friends and the public, That he manufactures the following articles, viz.
Figured and plain broad lace,
ditto ditto half ditto
ditto ditto seaming do.
Broad and narrow chain do.
Round and flatt reins holders glass strings,
Coach and other fringes, tassels, & cords. And all kinds of Trimmings used for Coaches, and Chaise, either figured or plain… The above articles are constantly kept for sale. At No. 56, Marlboro Street; made in the best manner, and as cheap as at any place in town… The patronage of the public is solicited, and the smallest favors gratefully acknowledges. (10 w.) Massachusetts Mercury August 25, 1797. Collection of Paul Downing
Major Adino Paddock 1758-1776
Major Adino Paddock was the premier colonial coach manufacturer. A native of Boston, he began as a “Chaise-maker” in a shop near the Common in 1758, and the next year ran his first clearance sale by offering six second-hand chaises “under their value” to eliminate storage charges. Approval by the best judges of his “newly-built Post Chariot, Hanging on Steel Springs” inspired master Paddock in 1761 to undertake to finish any “coach, Chariot, or other carriage equal in fashion and goodness to the latest models from England, at the prime cost there, including one half the freight.’” This bid for the Yankee carriage trade brought him many orders for “Traveling Chairs and Town Coaches” from all over New England and Livery Lace” for servants as well. There are modern overtones in an advertisement of 1767 that he would “Take Old Chaises in part pay for New”. And that he had “horse nets” for sale. Paddock’s business was extensive… he made carriages and sleighs of all kinds, he performed work for other Boston Chaise makers whose establishments were not large enough to undertake all operations, and he kept his sizable force of workmen busy building vehicles for sale up and down the New England coast. In 1774 this entrepreneur backed George Hamlin who drove a hackney coach to any place in Boston for a shilling a person, and allowed him to stand for hire in his coach yard at Long Acre. C. Bridenbaugh 90 MID
Adino Paddock, at his shop in Common Street, near the Granary, where all sorts of traveling and town carriages are made, sells livery lace of all colours, for servants and chaises; worsted reins, brass nails, and all sorts of chaise furniture, neats foot oil.Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter, April 21, 1763, April 28, 1763, May 5, 1763 and May 12, 1763. Collection of Paul Downing
Adino Paddock, “Chaise Linings, green and cloth coloured, laces to match ditto, chaise and harness furniture of all sorts, Wilton Carpeting, Worsted reins, green and cloth coloured, coach glasses of all sizes, to be sold as cheap as can be bought in town by Adino Paddock, At his shop in Long-Acre Common Street, Boston: Where the coach-making business is carried on in all its branches as usual, neat’s foot oil.”Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter. June 20, 1771. Collection of Paul Downing
Adino Paddock, “A genteel Whiskey with Italian springs, and patent iron axle with double boxes, To be sold by Adino Paddock, in Long-Acre, Common Street, Boston. Who has also for sale a number of second-hand chaises, of different prices, and a variety of livery laces of all colours, suitable for chaises and servants cloathing.” Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter, July 22, 1773. Collection of Paul Downing
Adino Paddock, At his shop opposite the Granery, in Common Street. Carries on the coach and chaise-making business, in all its branches; such as, chariots, post-chaises, phaetons, curricles, &c. As each part is finished under his immediate inspection, those who employ him may depend upon being served in the best manner and at the most reasonable rate – cheaper than any other province on the continent – carriages, wheels, iron-work, and harness repaired, with care and dispatch. At the above shop are sold, worsted runs by the yard, plain lace and livery-lace of all colours for chaises, and servants cloaths: neat’s foot oil. Said Paddock has always a number of second-hand chaises to dispose of, very cheap, and will take old chaises as part of pay for new.” Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter. From May 15, 1766 to August 28, 1776. Collection of Paul Downing
Shaw, Briggs & Crafts. shortly before 1837. See Briggs & Crafts.
Clinton Manufacturing Company 1838-1857 sold to Wm. H. Horstmann,
The coach lace business at Medway in 1833 was reported to produced twice as much coach lace as Marsh at Quincy and three-eighths more than than at Milford with the same manpower as at Milford. Louis McLane. Documents Relative to the Manufactures in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Duff Green, 1833: Reprint, New York: Economic Classics, 1969.
Royal Southwick about 1818-1824 started his business in company with Dean Walker, and then built a large factory next to his house utilizing water power from Chicken Brook. After starting his business, Southwick brought the Crowther Brothers over from England, and after Mr. Southwick removed to Lowell, the Crowthers continued the lace business in Medway. The coach lace business became a lesser part of the mill’s activity. Lace curtain trim and gimps were more generally manufactured. From a letter from Francis D. Donovan. Royal Southwick House, 19 Winthrop Street, Medway, MA 02053, July 14, 1988.
Royal Southwick, born at Uxbridge, September 9, 1785, married Direxa Claftin in 1826. Frederick William Coburn. History of Lowell and Its People. New York, NY : Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1920, page 173.
Dean Walker 1818-to about 1825 believed to have moved to the Baltimore area.
Alexander Wright 1820 engaged in Coach Lace making. Left Medway to become superintendent of a carpet factory.Frederick William Coburn. History of Lowell and Its People. New York, NY : Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1920, page 173; Cutter, William Richard. Historic Homes and Places and Genealogical and Personal….Memoirs. Vol. IV. New York, NY : Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1908, page 1603.
Unknown name, 18??-1833 Coach lace business reported to produce three-eights less coach less than the Medway coach lace business with the same manpower. Louis McLane. Documents Relative to the Manufactures in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Duff Green, 1833: Reprint, New York: Economic Classics, 1969.
At the Marsh establishment from 1800-1820 the total number of weavers ranged from six and ten and was primarily women. From 1826-1827 their were 9 women and two men weavers. Nine weavers are recorded as being paid for coach lace in 1827-1828. At the height of the coach lace business in 1834-1835 10 women were employed as weavers and two men. Four men and thirteen women names appeared in the 1835-1836 records, for weaving coach lace. The number of weavers men and women varied each year, as did the amount of that each produced. Names appear, vanish and return, with family member’s names that were closing related to the Marshes making up most of the names: Spear, Nightengale, and Crane. In Louis McLane “Documents Relative to the Manufactures in the United States,” published in Washington, D. C. in 1833 he reports that the Marsh coach lace factory produces half the amount of coach lace as the coach lace business at Medway, Massachusetts with the same manpower.
Spear and Sophia Arnold, 1826 appear as weavers although the amounts are small worked for Marsh family.
Mehitable Blanchard made in excess of $150.00 for the year 1826-1827 weaving laces. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.
James Edwards came from New Jersey in 1826, when he was twenty-nine years old and except for two years he wove coach lace for the Marshes until 1838. James Edwards was born in Edinburg, Scotland on September 15, 1797 and moved to Newark, New Jersey with his parents, Alexander (also a weaver) and Margaret Edwards shortly thereafter. He married three times, first to Harriet Amory (born in Ireland on February 24, 1807) and died in Quincy on May 18, 1833. James Edwards became one of the most valuable employees of the Marshes as he regularly worked at making coach lace. From 1827-1828, he received a total of $300.79 for his production of coach lace. Nancy Britton. Coach Lace: Industry, Production & Markets, University of Rhode Island, 1999. This amounts to the about the same amount of the yearly salary paid Elisha and Jonathan Marsh head of the manufactory. He became a member of the community along with future generations of Edwards. He was killed in 1863 by a falling derrick in the granite quarries. Sprague Collection, Genealogies of the Families of Braintree, MA 1640-1850, (Boston, MA: New England Historical Genealogical Society), record #1548, microfilm. And Edwards file, Quincy Historical Society.
Garrit Garranbrantz seems to have moved back and forth from Quincy to Newark as he is listed at various times in the Marsh accounts and the Newark directory and early newspaper. Wilson Marsh by Miriam N. Marsh and Sentinel of Freedom. Newark to Quincy is a distance of about 231 miles and we know from the 1822 advertisement in the Newark’s Sentinel of Freedom that the Marshes sought coach lace weavers for their manufactory.”To Journeymen Coachlace–Weavers. Wanted immediately, at Wilson Marsh & Sons’s, Coach Lace Manufactory in Quincy, (near Boston, Massachusetts) one or two journeymen of industrious and steady habits, and good workmen, to whom good wages and prompt pay will be given. For further information, apply to Mr. David Smith, Merchant in Newark. Sentinel of Freedom, Newark, New Jersey, Nov. 12, 1822, no. 10, vol. xxvii.
Charles Hardwick first appears in the 1790s records weaving wool yardage and by 1810 was largely employed in weaving coach laces and some boot straps. Marsh Papers, Quincy Historical Society, 97.16.2, box 2, n.p. “Wilson Marsh & Son Acct Book” 1809-1814.
Delpha Hersy made $49.00 for lace weaving in the year 1826-1827. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.
Elizabeth Jewett made $90.33 for lace weaving in the year 1826-1827 and for the year 1839 $112.20. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.
Abigail Marsh one of triplets of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Savil-Marsh worked for the family sometime after 1826.
Ann Marsh (also called Nancy) remained unmarried and was the second child of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Savil-Marsh; she began weaving coach lace in 1811 at age twenty-seven. Marsh Papers, Quincy Historical Society, 64.52.J. Marsh’s genealogy. During that year Ann wove over 1,700 yards of a variety of laces including sixty-six yards of “silk lace,” earning nearly $100.00 During 1813, she wove over twelve hundred fifty yards of lace, as well as three hundred thirty-eight yards of bootstraps and one hundred and five yards of webb, earning over $75.00. Similar yardages and wages received are entered for other weavers during the years of the business.
Charles Marsh was listed as weaving $5.00 worth of coach lace he was the son of Jonthan Marsh.
E. & J. Marsh 1828-1836 (Elisha and Jonathan Marsh)
Elisha Marsh the son of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Savil-Marsh was made a partner on June 17, 1811 and he was to receive three hundred dollars per year for his “personal labor.” Elisha quit the business in 1837 and went to help his nephew George (Jonathan’s son) in a shoe or leather business. Elisha Marsh the eldest son of Wilson Marsh married a half sister Lucy and they had no children.
Jonathan Marsh the son of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Savil-Marsh joins the partnership on June 18, 1812 and formally in 1814. He had been working for the business for several years. The accounts show that he paid room and board, yet somehow managed to acquire enough cash that when an inventory was made upon his entry into the business, he paid the one-third to become a partner-$673.27. Marsh Papers, Quincy Historical Society 97.16.2,n.p.
Thomas Mayhew Marsh a son of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Savil-Marsh, produced $20.00 worth of lace. He wove for the firm in 1835-1836 and 1836-1837 he produced (not earned in wages) $151.14 and $240.00 respectively. Although he continued to be active for two successive years, his production dwindled to under $25.00 for each year. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.
Wilson Marsh 1797-???? name changed to Wilson Marsh and Son. Wilson Marsh was the founder and head of the manufactory was paid a yearly salary “To one years work,” of $225.00 in 1809, and deductions were made from this account for lost time, rent of the house, etc. Wilson Marsh died in 1828.
Wilson Marsh and Son ????-???? (Wilson Marsh and his son Jonathan Marsh) name changed to Wilson Marsh and Sons.
Wilson Marsh and Sons ????-???? changed to E. & J. Marsh.
Abraham Merkel is believed to be the first coach lace weaver at the Marshes coming from Newark, New Jersey.
Mary Nightengale (related to the Marshes) was the most long term person and the most regular at making coach lace. Mary Nightengale worked for the Marshes starting in 1810 weaving silk fringe, broad, pasting, and seaming laces, and handle lace and only stopped when the Marshes closed the coach lace manufactory in 1838. Her lace weaving totaled $79.00 for the year 1826-1827 and for the year 1839 $104.78. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.
Sarah Penniman made in excess of $150.00 for the year 1826-1827 weaving laces. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.
Susanna Marsh-Savil one of triplets of Wilson Marsh and Susanna Marsh-Savil worked for the family after 1826.
Eliza Veazie made $125.86 for lace weaving in the year 1833. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.
Sarah Ann Vezie(Veazie)made $252.70 for lace weaving in the year 1826-1827. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p.
Mahitable Walker made $90.33 for lace weaving in the year 1826-1827. Marsh Papers Quincy Historical Society, 64. 52 B, n.p. 8
William J. Wightman, 1844, Five pieces of silk coach lace. The patterns of workmanship were both very fine; and, the material being of silk, the general appearance is rich. These specimens are highly creditable to the manufacturer. Diploma. Fourth Exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association at Quincy Hall, In the City of Boston, September 16, 1844, page 148.
Caldwell, New Jersey
Bates, Douglas and Cochran, coach lace manufacturer (Philemon Bates10, Nathaniel Douglass9, Thomas Cochran) sometime before 1811 changed to Cochran and Bates
Bates, Douglass and Ray, coach lace manufacturer 1799-1800 changed to Andrew Ray. Coach Lace and Fringe Manufactory. The subscribers most respectfully inform their friends and the public, that they are now carrying on a manufactory of coach lace and fringes, nearly opposite the store of Bates and Douglas – where may be had, on the shortest notice, Coach and Chair mountings of any pattern or figure, silk, cotton, or thread cloak and shaw fringes; also, fringes and tassels of any color or pattern, for church or house furniture. As large sums of money are yearly sent abroad for the above articles, the utility of such a work in this country, is too evident to need any comments. The subscribers have a good stock on hand, and have engaged the best of workmen from Europe; and flatter themselves, from the already rapid sale of their goods, both in New York and the country, and by their steady application to business, to merit the esteem and patronage of a generous public, Orders from any part of the Continent, for the above articles forwarded to the Post Office at Newark, or sent directly to the factory, will be thankfully received, and executed with neatness and dispatch, at or below the New York prices. Bates, Douglass, and Ray. Caldwell, (New Jersey) Aug. 19, 1799 N. B. Wanted a quantity of good combing wool, for which a generous price will be given. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 3 No. 4 , Sept. 3, 1799, Vol. 3 No. 50, Sept. 10, 1799, Vol. 3 No. 51, Sept. 17, 1799.
Cochran and Bates coach lace manufacturer started March 5, 1811: The partnership of Bates, Douglass and Cochran, is this day dissolved by mutual consent. All persons indebted to them are desired to make immediate payment, and those having demands to present their accounts for settlement to Thomas Cochran or Philemon Bates, who are authorized to settle said concern.
Nathaniel Douglass, [went into the dry goods business]
N. B. The manufacturing of Coach Lace and fringe, will be continued under the firm of Cochran and Bates, who have on hand a handsome assortment, which they will sell at the lowest prices, and on liberal terms. All orders from a distance, and in particular from former customers, will be thankfully received and executed with the greatest possible dispatch by Thomas Cochran, Philemon Bates, Caldwell, Feb. 20, 1811. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 15 No. 24, March 5, 1811.
Andrew Ray, coach lace manufacturer, 1800-1805. Coach Lace and Fringe Manufactory, The co-partnership of Bates, Douglass and Ray in the coach, lace and fringe manufactory, is this day dissolved by mutual consent. Bates & Douglass, Andrew Ray. The business in the future will be carried on by Andrew Ray, where may be had, as usual, coach lace, fringes and tassels of all kinds, on the shortest notice. Caldwell, Oct. 13, 1800. N. B. Mr. Ray is authorized to receive the debts of the company. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 5 No. 6-11, Nov. 4, 1800, Dec. 2, 1800, Dec. 9, 1800. moved to Newark in 1803.
Camden, New Jersey
John A. Raab 1905-1908, 1275 Mechanic–produced Coach Lace, Tassels, Silkcord on three narrow hand looms and he sold direct. Dockhams, 1905, 174 & 1907, 180. Collection, Baker Library, Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration. Soldiers Field, Boston, Massachusetts 02163
Elizabeth, New Jersey
John P. Cree, 1850-–(son of Jonathan and Mary Pierson Cree) born October 21, 1813 in Elizabeth, NJ–died May 11, 1869 at 37 Scott Place, NJ. From Cree Family of Elizabeth, New Jersey by Gary L. Mahier, c 1998.
John P. Cree, 1869(born 1849-????, son of John P. Cree and Jane E. Melvin-Cree, took over his father’s business when he died in 1869 of coach lace weaver. From Cree Family of Elizabeth, New Jersey by Gary L. Mahier, c 1998.
Jersey City, New Jersey
John Ayres, 90 Montgomery Street, coach lace manufacturer, (no directories before 1849) 1849-1854.
New Brunswick, New Jersey
James Clark, Peace Street, coach lace manufacturer, 1850-1851
Newark, New Jersey11
From the report of the Committee of Commerce and Manufactures made to Congress in 1816 on the year 1815.
“At Newark, New Jersey, a manufacturer of coach lace employed at this time about twenty hands. His supply of “floss silk” (raw silk freed from the natural gum). Was obtained from Connecticut, and was found to be both in strength and luster “much superior to the best imported silk.” The silk of Connecticut had been previously made chiefly into sewings, and the raw silk used for coach lace, tassels, and fringe, had been principally imported at an average cost of six dollars per pond, which was increased by the war to thirty dollars per pond. From this time forward, large quantities of raw silk were also required for the manufacture of Tusean braid for hats.“12
The first formal census taken by Newark in 1826 reported 36 coach lace weavers.13
In 1830, 51 coach-lace weavers were reported in Essex county Newark, New Jersey and by 1835, 112 coach lace weavers were employed with annual product of $80,000. The number of manufactories employing the 121 coach lace weavers was three:14 [Christopher C. Barnett, Thomas Lawrence, and William Stevens] The last known coach lace weaver listed in the Newark, New Jersey city directories was Isaac Tompkins in 1864.
Abner W. Allen, 1836-1837, 118 Plane
Henry Baldwin, 1835-1841, 19 Ward, coach lace weaver :
J. Y. Baldwin and Company, 1811, dry goods merchant: : The subscriber have just received from York (England) a consignment of coach lace trimmings &c. very elegant, and entire new patterns. Also one box of webbings and whip thongs, which they offer at a reduced price for cash or good paper on 90 days credit. They will be found an object really worthy the attention of coach maker and trimmers … other dry goods, John Y. Baldwin & Co., Newark Jan. 1, 1811. Sentinel of Freedom, Vol. 15 No. 15, Jan. 1811.
Wine, Coach Lace, Webbings and Thongs, a consignment just received, and for sale by J. Y. Baldwin & Co. July 16, 1811. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 15 No. 43 (actual No. 771), July 16, 1811.
Christopher C. Barnett, 1835-1857, Ward, coach lace manufacture : R. G. Dun reports that C. C. Barnett had “careless habits, unkempt” on February 18, 1847 and that in April 1853 he was “sold out by the sheriff.” NJ, Vol. 20, page 319, R. G. Dun & Co., Collection, Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts 02163
W. G. Barnet, 26 Centre took out a patent for a coach lace loom on November 18, 1825. To Coach-Makers. The subscriber would respectfully invite the Coach-Makers and his friends in general to call at his manufactory, opposite the Post Office, in Broad Street, and view a few specimens of PLUSH
COACH-LACE. A new and splendid article much admired by the Coach-Makers of Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. For the exclusive manufacture of which, the subscriber has obtained Letters Patent from the United States. Two apprentices wanted immediately to the Coach-Lace and Fringe Making business. Wm. G. Barnet. Newark, January 24, 1826. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 30 No. 20, January 31, 1826.
George Carlock, 1835-1838, 152 Plane, coach lace weaver; moved to Bridgeport, Connecticut.
James Crane 1836-1837 lace weaver
Alexander Douglas, 1836-1837, 17 Ward; born March 19, 1808-died Jan. 9, 1875 in Newark, New Jersey. Married Catharine Hull the daughter of Marville Hull coach lace weaver. From Marion Walter firstname.lastname@example.org
Michael Erb, 1841-1862, 37 River Street, near the Railroad Depot – wholesale and retail Manufacturer of Coach Lace, Fringes and Tassels. changed to curled hair
Michael Erb, 17 Broad, 1841
Michael Erb, 19 Ward, 1844-1849
Michael Erb, 36 River 1853
Garret Garrabrants, 1835-1866, 125 Market Street, and 152 Plane, (1866 at 6 Elm Street) coach lace weaver and coach lace manufacture (mentioned as being a coach lace weaver for Wilson Marsh of Massachusetts before 1835 name also spelled Garrit Garrabrants): [G. Garrabrants, Informs those whom he supplies with the Centinel, that his year for settlement expires the third of December next, at which time he wishes all indebted to be ready to make payment. Those whose accounts have stood more than one year must not expect further indulgence. November 12, 1816. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 21 No. 11, Nov. 26, 1816.
Garret N. Garrabrant, and Garrabrant A. Garrabrants. vs. Daniel S. Sigler. Fi. Fa. De bonis et terris. By virtue of the above stated writ offi. Fa. To me directed, I have levied on all the lands and tenements of the defendant, situated in the Township of Bloomfield, which property I shall expose to sale, at public vendue, at the Court House in the Town of Newark, on the 18th day of April next, between hours of 12 and 5 o’clock in the afternoon. Nathan Squier Sheriff February 18, 1817. Sentinel of Freedom. February 18, 1817.
Frederick Gruet, 1839-1860, 30 Hamilton, fringe and tassel mfr
John D. Hayes, 1835 – 1862, 173 Mulberry, coach lace weaver
John D. Hayes, moved to 2 Greenwich by 1861
David B. Heddon 1836-1837, 126 Washington
Marvil Hull, 1835-1837, 17 Ward, lace weaver. Also spelled Marville born May 14th 1784 in Lenox, MA. In 1785 his parents moved to Arlington, VT. In 1815 or earlier the family moved to Caldwell, New Jersey. He was the father-in-law of Alexander Douglass coach lace weaver. From Marion Walter email@example.com.
John Hyndman 1836-1837
George Jackson, 1835-1837, 70 Bank, coach lace weaver
George Jackson, 177 Washington 1836
Moses R. King, 1837-1845 changed to land agent
Moses R. King, 321 Broad, 1837-1838
Moses R. King, 221 Broad, 1840
Moses R. King, 221 Broad, 1843 annual consumption in Newark Factories 500 pounds of raw silk, in making coach-laces, fringe, tassels, and gimps.15
Moses R. King, 325 Broad, 1845
Thomas Lawrence, 1835-1847, Division n. Broad, coach lace maker, and coach lace manufactory: .
Charles Lent, 1835-1849, 26 Bank
G. Lovatt, 1847-1867, silk and twist mfr. Acad’y
Thomas Lovett, 1835-1857, Hamilton n. Mulberry, coach lace weaver
Thomas Lovett, 10 Mechanic, 1857
Stephen Lumb ????-1835, 16 Orchard, coach lace weaver,
Abrahm Merkel 1797
George McCully, 1844-1863, 298 Broad Street, wholesale manufacturer of coach lace, fringe and tassels
Miller and Lindsley 1820, (James Miller and John Lindsley). Coach Lace Manufactory. The subscribers having entered into copartnership under the firm of Miller and Lindsley, respectfully inform their friends and the public that they have commenced manufacturing Coach Lace, Fringe and Tassels, of all kinds, at the corner of Market and Plane Streets, where all orders will be thankfully received and punctually attended to. James Miller and John Lindsley, Newark Dec. 16, 1820. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 25 No. 16,Dec. 26, 1820.
Henry Myer, 1835-1838, 17 Ward, coach lace weaver
Richard Oliver, 1835-1856, 30 Ward, coach lace weaver
Stephen S. Pierson, 1835-1847, 151 Plane, coach lace weaver; changed to japanner
Samuel Pool, 1836-1837
Andrew Ray, 1800-1805, coach lace manufacturer; moved to New York, Baltimore, Kentucky and Indiana.
Take notice as the subscriber intends leaving this place the ensuring spring, he takes this method of calling on all indebted to him to make payment; and those having demands are requested to present them. He offers at private sale; the following property, viz. The place on which he now lives, pleasantly situated at the south end of Newark, containing 3 acres and 50-100; on which is a good house, shop, and barn, with an excellent orchard. Also, a handsome lot, in the township of Caldwell, adjoining the meeting house, with a house, and young apple orchard thereon, containing five and a half acres. Also a tract of land, in the state of Tennessee, containing five hundred acres. Also two horses, 4 Riding Chairs, two good milk cows, &c. Andrew Ray, Newark, Dec. 16, 1805. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 10 No. 15, Dec. 31, 1805.
“Andrew Rae, was a native of Kippen, near Stirling, Scotland, who emigrated to this country in 1793. His wife(James Ray’s mother)–was the daughter of a sterling revolutionary patriot of new Jersey, who was captured by the British, and ended his life in English prison ships, which were moored in the Hudson river. Andrew Ray (this spelling is the Americanized form of Rae) was a character. He was an intelligent manufacturer in Paisley, Scotland, but so intensely patriotic that he and a number of other Scotchmen were regarded as rebels by the English government, because they were strongly and loudly opposed to the union of England and Scotland, and to the abolition of the Scottish parliament. As an example of the elder Ray’s anti-British feeling, it may be mentioned here that when, during “the late war,” he happened to be in Baltimore at the time of the famous attack at North Point, and hearing that the British troops had landed from their ships, he, a total stranger, offered to the military authorities his services, which were immediately accepted. He gave as his motive the burning recollection of oppression that his beloved Scotland had received at the hands of the English. He was ?? years old at the very van of a dangerous attack, when the soldier at his side was shot down, although Ray came out untouched.
Andrew Ray, from his experience in manufacturing of the still famous Paisley shawls, conceived the idea of establishing at Newark, New Jersey, a manufactory of coach laces, fringes and tassels. The figures of coach laces in those days were raised in weaving, as is the case with Paisley shawls. It is said that he was the first person who manufactured this specialty of goods on the western continent. The factory at Newark, though large, was not equal to the demand; and Andrew Ray engaged more extensively in the same business in the city of New York. During the non intercourse with England, and for the few years succeeding the war of 1812 there was a great demand for these coach laces, and a profitable trade was carried on in all the United States, and even into South America.
Here he remained but two years, when the changed condition of affairs, by the ending of the
“late war,” and by the active smuggling of coach trimmings from abroad caused a revolution in the fortunes of his father (Andrew Ray). Andrew Ray then left New York and established himself in Baltimore, where for two or three years he carried on a factory of coach trimmings, and young as he was James M. Became his father’s confidential clerk and salesman. Andrew Ray, however determined to move to the then far west, and made extensive purchases of land at or near Carlisle, Nicholas county, Kentucky, where he intended to end his days as a farmer. But the dream of his farm life soon came to a close, by learning that the deed he received was of no value whatever, there being older and better titles to the property. This was a cruel blow to all, but with energy the father (Andrew Ray) again began to manufacture coach lace, fringes, & c., and James M. again became salesman, making journeys to Paris, Lexington, Frankfort, Kentucky, and as far south as central Tennessee.
In the year 1817 Andrew Ray, not succeeding in the manufacturing business in Kentucky, and not having sympathy with slavery, resolved to emigrate to the new and free state of Indiana. The spot selected was near Lawrenceburg, Indiana.” From the obituary of “James M. Ray.” Indianapolis News, Indianapolis, Indiana, February 23, 1881. Indiana State Library, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Coach Lace and Fringe Manufactory, The co-partnership of Bates, Douglass and Ray in the coach, lace and fringe manufactory, is this day dissolved by mutual consent. Bates & Douglass, Andrew Ray. The business in the future will be carried on by Andrew Ray, where may be had, as usual, coach lace, fringes and tassels of all kinds, on the shortest notice. Caldwell, Oct. 13, 1800. N. B. Mr. Ray is authorized to receive the debts of the company. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 5 No. 6-11, Nov. 4, 1800, Dec. 2, 1800, Dec. 9, 1800.
Coach Lace and Fringe Manufactory. The public are respectfully informed that the subscriber has removed his manufactory from Caldwell, to the house formerly occupied by Theodorus Johnson, at the fourth end of Newark; where he had Coach-Lace and Fringe of every description; also all kinds of fringes and tassels for upholsters of private families. Andrew Ray. N. B. As a number of spinners, and twislers of worsted and linen yarns are wanted, he will give liberal encouragement to such as may wish to be employed. Orders from any part of the United States carefully attended to. Newark, 29th March, 1803. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 8 No. 26, March 29, 1803.
Abraham Reok, 1835-1838, Broad, coach lace weaver,
George Rowden, 1843-1862, 294 Mulberry Street; George Rowden, 296 Mulberry Street, 1861 carriage trimmings not coach lace.
R. G. Dun reported in November of 1856 that had been in business seven or eight years, owned his house and lot in Newark and was industrious. In 1857 he was reported as married, but the estimates of his age varied between 25-30 and 40-45. NJ, Vol. 20, page 92, R. G. Dun & Co., Collection, Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts.
William Sanford, 1835-1843, Mercer n. Hiag
George Sipp, 1835-1837, Orange, lace weaver
George Sipp, High North of Quarry 1837
Stevens and Clark 1818.
Coach Lace Manufactory. The subscribers having removed from Newark to Manhattenville, (eight miles from New York) he has taken James Clark into partnership. The business in the future will be conducted by the subscribers under the firm of Stevens and Clark. They offer for sale to their friends and customers, as good an assortment of Coach Lace, Fringe and Tassels, as is manufactured in the United States. Stevens and Clark. N. B. All orders sent to the care of John Dodgson, 300 Pearl Street, New York, will be attended to with punctuality and dispatch. Manhattenville. April 20, 1818. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 22 No. 32, April 21, 1818..
Coach Lace Manufactory. illustration of loom Steven and Clark. Having removed to the North end of Newark, nearly opposite to the house of Major John I. Plume; they offer for sale as good an assortment of Coach Lace, Fringe and Tassels, to their friends and customers, as are manufactured in the United States. The hope to merit and receive a share of the public patronage. Newark, New Jersey October 9, 1818. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 23 No. 7, Oct. 27, 1818.
Rhode & Stevens, 1820, changed to William Stevens.
Combing wool wanted at the Washington Factory by the subscribers, a quantity of combing wool, for which the market price will be paid. RHODE & STEVENS, Newark Nov. 2, 1820. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 25 No. 11,Nov. 21,1820.
William Stevens, 1822-1851, 111 Market, coach lace manufacturer.
In 1821 came the most ambitious demonstration in the history of the town [of Newark] up to that time. By dint of great activity, it was contrived to have nearly every manufacturing interest in the community in the [Fourth of July] procession. The newspapers spoke of this display as “correctly representing the great mechanical interest of Newark,” which means that the program of the floats or “stages” is little short of being an industrial directory….Great crowds flocked in from all the surrounding towns. It was the largest assemblage in the town’s history, thus far. The list of “stages” or floats of about forty different establishments is as follows…William Steven’s worsted manufactory, represented by a comber combing wool of various colors, for the spinning machinery, for which machines were very ingeniously kept in motion by the hind wheels of the waggon. Every part was kept in complete operation and seven hands were at work.–William Steven’s coach lace factory, represented with a loom in full operation, with several other branches of business, and four
hands at work. Sentinel of Freedom July 5, 1821.
To Coach Makers, Upholsters, &c. The subscriber besides manufacturing Coach Lace, of various kinds, keeps constantly on hand a general and extensive assortment of worsted and woolen yarn, of all colours, and of different qualities at the Washington Factory. North end of Newark, where those wishing either Coach Lace, Fringe, Tassels, or yarn can be supplied on the most accommodating terms. William Stevens February 26, 1821. Picture of loom with ad, Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 25 No. 25, February 27, 1821.
Washington Factory, Newark, New Jersey. The subscribers manufactures and has on hand an assortment of worsted and yarn, of various colours suitable for stockings, Also a quantity of white worsted, for coach lace weavers, with a quantity of wool, all of which he will sell for cash. William Stevens. N. B. He also manufacturers and offers for sale a general assortment of Coach Lace, Fringe, Tassels, &c. Oct. 22, 1821. Picture of loom with ad, Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 26 No. 3, Oct. 30, 1821.
Coach-Lace Fringe and Tassel Manufactory. The subscriber respectfully informs his friends and the public, that since the destruction of his works by fire, he has erected an entire new set of looms for the manufacture of Coach Lace, &c. And is now ready to receive the orders of those wanting articles in the line of his business. William Stevens, Newark, New Jersey February 4, 1822. Illustration of loom., Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 26 No. 22, February 5, 1822.
To worsted spinners the subscribers intends to keep on hand a quantity of comb wool for worsted; those who are acquainted with worsted spinning will do well to call and see. Williams Stevens, North end Newark, July 2, 1822. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 26 No. 44, July 9, 1822.
Wool Combing. The subscriber inform the public, that he intends combing wool, for customers, at William Steven’s Coach Lace Manufactory, where he will be happy to serve those that will employ him. James Finn. North end of Newark, August 18, 1822. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 26 No. 51, August 27, 1822.
Wool for sale the subscriber has on hand a quantity of Pennsylvania wool, suitable for stocking yarn, which he offers for sale cheap for cash. William Stevens. North end of Newark, August 26, 1822. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 27 No. 1, September 10, 1822.
To Woollen and Cotton Manufacturers. The subscriber has just received a fresh supply of Wire twisted worsted or Heald Heddle or Harness yarn, for making weavers Healds or Harness, of a superior quality. The above is for sale at his Coach Lace Factory, North end of Newark. William Stevens, October 29,1822. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 27 No. 3,Oct. 29, 1822.
To worsted spinners. The subscriber has on hand, about four hundred pounds of combied wool of a superior quality, which he wants spun for worsted. Good worsted spinners will find it to their advantage by calling on William Stevens, North end of Newark, April 29, 1823. Illustration of loom, Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 27 No. 33,May 6, 1823.
To wool combers, Will be sold cheap for cash, one pair of three prong Wool Combs, imported direct from England, Enquire at the Coach-Lace Manufactory, North end Newark. William Stevens, August 2, 1825. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 29 No. 26, March 29, 1825.
[Wanted immediately, an apprentice to the Coach Lace weaving business. One of good character, and industrious habits, will meet with good encouragement. Apply at the office of the Sentinel. August 29, 1825. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 29 No. 48, August 30, 1825 [unknown advertiser]
Stevens, Sanford & Company 1838
Isaac Tompkins, 1835-1864, 71 Commerce, coach lace weaver
Isaac B. Tompkins, 3 Summitt, 1849
Isaac Tompkins moved to 64 Plane by 1857-1864
Calvin White, 1835-1853, Halsey’s Alley n. James, coach lace weaver
Calvin White, 17 Ogden, 1853
Isaac Williams, 1848-1862
Isaac H. Williams, 52 Catharine, 1848-1849
Isaac H. Williams, 10 Lawrence 1853-1860
Isaac, William, 12 Summit, about 1860
P. H. & W. Williams, 1858-1862, 10 Mechanic
Rahway, New Jersey
Minard Cline, 1850,
Randolph deCamp, 1850
Daniel Helfield, 1850
UNION HILL, BERGEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
Thedor Klahre. 1853 Coach Lace manufacturer. Official Catalogue of the New York Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations. 1853, page 66.
Albany, New York
James Glen 1844-1848, coach lace weaver Hoffman’s Albany Directory
James Glen 1844-1845, coach lace weaver 37 Bleecker
James Glen 1848, coach lace weaver Altas Building
William Kemp 1841-1846, coach lace weaver Hoffman’s Albany Directory
William Kemp 1841, lace weaver, 136 Lydius
William Kemp 1842-1844, 37 Steuben
William Kemp 1844, 129 Broad
Alfred Pierce 1840-1848, coach lace manufacturer, may have been a harness maker in Albany previously. Hoffman’s Albany Directory.
Alfred Pierce 1840-1841, coach lace manufacturer 28 Hudson h. 22 Ferry
Alfred Pierce 1846-1848, coach lace manufacturer 32 Hudson bds 11 Dallius & Wilson’s Hotel
Horace Pierce 1841-1844, lace weaver 22 Ferry, bds; 11 Beaver. Hoffman’s Albany Directory
John McCullough, Jr., 1859 coach lace weaver, home 29 Vine. Adams, Sampson & Co., Albany, New York General & Business Directory.
Steele & Hobbs, 1859, coach lace weavers, 420 Broadway. Adams, Sampson & Co., Albany, New York General & Business Directory.
Wright Nathaniel & Co., 1859, coach lace weavers, 324 Broadway. Adams, Sampson & Co., Albany, New York General & Business Directory.
Auburn, New York
Cotton P. Hayden 1830-1833, East Genesee Street, selling saddlery hardware, etc. starts contract with state prison,–changes to P. Hayden & Co. after Cotton P. Hayden dies of cholera and his partner and brother Peter Hayden takes over. Auburn Daily Bulletin, Auburn, NY Friday October 27, 1876.
P. Hayden & Co., 1833-1844, has partners Mr. Buck and Mr. Harlude; changes to Hayden and Holmes
Hayden and Holmes 1844-1850. Peter Hayden moved to Columbus, Ohio to open a branch manufactory there. Previous to this a branch manufactory had been opened at Sing Sing [Prison, Ossining, NY.] Hayden & Holmes, manufactured carriage laces in addition to Hardware and hames, and for a long time kept 18 to 20 looms of this branch of trade in the prison; changes to Hayden and Letchworth.. Auburn Daily Bulletin, Auburn, N.Y. October 27, 1876.
Hayden and Letchworth 1850-1865, #3, 5 and 7 East Genesee, (Salesroom and office at No. 7 East Genesee Street with Manufactory in the Prison). 29 convicts were employed in making coach lace for Hayden & Letchworth at the Auburn State Prison. Boyd’s Auburn, New York Citzen and Business Directory for 1859-1860. (owner Peter Hayden died April 17th, 1888 in Columbus, OH Auburn Morning Dispatch, April 18 & 23, 1888 and Auburn Sunday Dispatch April 22, 1888. and George J. Letchworth died May 24th, 1887, London England. Auburn Bulletin May 25, 1887. changed its name to Hayden, Letchworth & Smith. The French’s Auburn City Directory for 1857 states “Prison Saddlery Ware-house established in 1830. “Hayden & Letchworth manufacturers of Hames, Coach Laces, Japanned, Brass and Silver Plated Saddlery. Also, Importers and Dealers in a great variety of Harness and Carriage Trimmings and Trunk Hardware. Manufactory in the Prison. Salesroom & Office No. 7 E. Genesee Street.” It is unknown when they started the coach lace manufactory and at what location exactly since they had many different operations in many cities and used the labor of four different prisons (Auburn, NY; Sing Sing, Ossining, NY; Columbus Prison, OH; and a Prison in California).
Hayden, Letchworth & Smith, ????-1876–changed to Hayden & Smith. Hub. Vol 18 No. 2, May 1876.
Hayden & Smith, 1876-????–changed to Hayden, Smith & Boyd.
Hayden, Smith & Boyd, 1873-1881, 11 East Genesee Street (owners Ogden P. Letchworth and B. C. Smith, A. A. Boyd); Changed its name to Hayden & Boyd.
Hayden & Boyd, 1881-1883, 11 East Genesse
Clyde, Wayne County, New York
Daniel Saxton, 1845; (born 1822 Long Island, NY-died June, 1891 Clyde, NY) moved to Clyde, New York in 1845 and with A. F. Terry engaged in the manufacture of coach lace. George Washington Cowles; H. P. Smith. Landmarks of Wayne County, New York. Syracuse, NY : D. Mason, 1895.
A. F. Terry, 1845; engaged in the manufacture of coach lace with Daniel Saxton. George Washington Cowles; H. P. Smith. Landmarks of Wayne County, New York. Syracuse, NY : D. Mason, 1895.
Lansingburgh, (Troy) New York
James J. Clark, 1866-????, Whipple Avenue, corner Cemetery Avenue. Troy Directory v. 38.There is a James Clark listed as partner in Stevens and Clark of Manhattenville, New York in 1818. (See Manhattenville, New York). There is also a James Clark listed in Newark, New Jersey and Bridgeport, Connecticut possible the James J. Clark in Lansingburgh is a second generation person of the New Jersey person and the same person from Bridgeport.
In 1888 Dockhams lists James J. Clark under “Woolen goods.” R. G. Dun lists James J. Clark in September of 1876 as well regarded and owning his own house and lot, with a capitalization of $5,000. In April 1877 he was said to furnish E. Chamberlain and Son with lace, and in January his wife “conveyed” the property to Anna C. Valance. The last report was in May 29, 1883. NY, Vol.. 2, page 111, R. G. Dun & Co., Collection, Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Manhattenville, New York
Stevens and Clark, 1818, Coach Lace Manufactory. The subscribers having removed from Newark to Manhattenville, (eight miles from New York) he has taken James Clark into partnership. The business in the future will be conducted by the subscribers under the firm of Stevens and Clark. They offer for sale to their friends and customers, as good an assortment of Coach Lace, Fringe and Tassels, as is manufactured in the United States. Stevens and Clark. N. B. All orders sent to the care of John Dodgson, 300 Pearl Street, New York, will be attended to with punctuality and dispatch. Manhattenville. April 20, 1818. Sentinel of Freedom. Vol. 27 No. 32, April 21, 1818. Moved back to Newark, New Jersey.
New York, New York
William Boston, 1863, 109 Mercer, lace
William Boston, 5 West 4th, 1875; Changed to Boston & Schmid.
Boston and Schmid, 1865-1876, 699 Broadway & 3 & 5 Fourth Street ; change to F. J. Schmid.
Bouton and Smith, 1871, 77 Borwery, retailer of carriage goods
Bartholomew Delapierre, 1820-1865
Bartholomew Delapierre, 84 Fulton, coach lace maker, 1820-1826.
Bartholomew Delapierre, 90 Fulton, 1834-1837
Bartholomew Delapierre, 465 Broadway, 1842
Bartholomew Delapierre, 25 Howard & 476 Broadway, ornaments, 1847
Bartholomew Delapierre, 198 Grand, trimmings, military fancy goods, fringes 1853-1865.
Charles Weeks and Company, 1871, 80 Fourth Avenue, retailer of carriage goods
Dusenbury and Ackerman, 1871, 58 Murray, retailer of carriage goods
H. C. Howells and Company, 1871, 14 Warren, retailer of carriage goods
John P. Jube, 97 Bowery 1871, retailer of carriage goods
Laidlaw Company 1871, retailer of carriage goods
Lunt, Deford and Lee, 1871, 99 Chambers, retailer of carriage goods
David de la Pierre, 1797, Fringe and Lace Manufacture, from Amsterdam has removed to No. 64 Stone Street where he continues to make all sorts of coach laces, gold and silver do. Hammer cloth fringe,
cord fringe and tassels for furniture and trimmings of all sorts. New York Daily Advertiser, June 6. 1797.
Take Notice. David de la Pierre, Lace Maker, no. 99 Beekman Street, takes this method to inform the public that he makes and sells all kinds of Lace, Fringes, Cords, Olives and Tostals. Likewise unadulterated Gold and Silver Galoon and Epaulets; do Gilt and Silvered-Praying for the continuance of their favors, assuring a quick dispatch on the most reasonable terms N. B. Cash given for fine Worsted. Daily Advertiser, April 23, 1801.
David Delapierre, 99 Beckman Street 1797-1808
David Delapierre, 4 George Street, 1810-1816;–believed to changed to Bartholomew Delapierre
Joseph Mainatti 1886, coach lace-maker for F. J. Schmid. Carriage Monthly. Vol. 22 No. 1, April 1886.
Erneast Muldener, 65 Reade, 1871, retailer of carriage goods
New York Coach Lace Company, 1902, 294-296 East 157 Street..
Henry Pope, 1794, At his Fringe, Coach and Livery Lace Manufactory, No. 51 Maiden Lane, New York wishes to express his thanks for the very extensive encouragement he has experienced in his attempts to establish the above branches of business in this city; and having now ten looms in complete work he flatters himself he can execute any order upon the shortest notice. Coach and Livery Lace made to match any pattern or colour. He has the following Goods, fresh from the looms: Tufted fringe of different depths, cotton for Ditto, Mantle fringe, Gimphead, Shawl fringe, Lace headed ditto, Thread fringe, Gimphead, Plain ditto, Cotton for knotting, Tassels and line, Bead-binding and rings, Grimson worsted Fringe-plain and gemp, Yellow Ditto, Green Ditto, Fine cotton slacks for darning muslins, do. For darning stockings, Cotton for filling Do. For Candle-Wicks, Heading for Bookbinding, and Warranted water, Twist for knitting, Silk Fringe, and all kinds of fancy trimmings. Diary, No. 726.June 10, 1794. Diary; or Evening Register, July 1, 1794. Collection of Paul Downing
Andrew Ray 1806-1814 came from Newark, New Jersey moved to Baltimore, Maryland
1806, 63 Chatham Street
1807-1809, 26 Church Street
1810-1814, 74 Chatham
F. J. Schmid, April 1st 1876-1902, No. 5 West & Fourth Street; changed its name to New York Coach Lace Company. Hub. Vol. 18 No. 2, May 1876 page 57..
Christian Striffler and Co., 1871, 175 Bowery, retailer of carriage goods
Cornelius Vanhorn and Co., 1871, 31 Chambers, retailer of carriage goods
George Wotherspoon, 1825. Coachmakers’ worsted. George Wotherspoon No. 62 Pine Street, New York, has just received from England, a small assortment of worsted yarn, suitable for lace, all high colours, which he offers for sale on accommodating terms. March 22, 1825. Sentinel of Freedom. (Newark, New Jersey) Vol. 29 No. 26, March 29, 1825..
Rochester, New York
A. Vogt [Albrecht Vogt], 1880-1886; changed to Rochester Coach Lace Company.
Cook, Schaefer & Renne [Edward Cook, Henry A. Schaefer, & Emil Renne], 1883-1886, 197 State Street. Manufacturers of dress, cloak and decorative trimmings, fringes, ornaments, cords, gimps and tassels; changed to Henry A. Schaefer.
Haiges and Vogt [Frederick Haiges and Albrecht Vogt], 1874-1880, No. 44 Exchange Street ; changed to A. Vogt.
Henry A. Schaefer, 1886-1888, took a partner Charles P. Schlegel; changed to Schaefer and Schlegel
Rochester Coach Lace Co., 1886-1892, 332 North Saint Paul Street ;changed to Vogt Manufacturing and Coach Lace Company.
Schaefer and Schlegel ,1888, 200 North Water Street.
Schaefer and Schlegel, 1889-1894, North Saint Paul Street.
Schaefer and Schlegel, 1894-1901, 27 Canal Street partnership broke up; changed to Schlegel Manufacturing Company and Schaefer and Klein.
Schaefer and Klein, 1893-1902-1906, 122 St. Paul Street, and St. Paul and Andrews street or 59 St. Paul street. In 1905 they incorporated as Schaefer and Klein Manufacturing Company. The Blue Book
lists Schaefer and Klein as starting business in 1893. In 1905 Henry A. Schaefer was president and buyer, and Henry Klein, was secretary and treasurer. The company had a capital of $60,000 and produced “Coach Lace, Carriage and Casket Trimmings, Woven Labels” on fifty-six looms and twenty braiders with one hundred fifty employees. They purchased cotton, silk and worsted yarn and sold direct. Blue Book 1905-1906, 328.
In Dockhams of 1907 they are producing silk belting, having “42 looms, 15 braiding, 2 trimming knitting and 4 sewing machines,” the mill had electric power, no dye facilities and purchased “silk, 8-1, 2-30 and 2-40 cotton, 2-26, 2-24, and 2-32 worsted.” Dockhams 1907, 215..
Schlegel Mfg. Co., 1902 to present, no longer manufacture coach lace. In 1910 they moved to North Goodman Street and College Avenue. In 1959 the Schlegel Corporation moved to 1555 Jefferson Road, Rochester, New York.
Union Textile, 1902-1916
Vogt Mfg. Co., 1886-1892, merged with Rochester Coach Lace Company and changed to Vogt Mfg. And Coach Lace Company.
Vogt Mfg. And Coach Lace Company, 1888-1920, North Street & Paul Street; changed to Vogt Manufacturing.
Vogt Manufacturing, 1921-1970, changed to Voplex Corporation. 1888-1920.
TROY, NEW YORK
William Connolly, 1848, diploma for coach lace. Sixth Annual Report of the American Institute of the City of New York. Albany, NY : Charles van Benthuysen, 1848, page 111.
C. Libeau & Co., also Libeau Charles & Co., (Charles Henking & C. L. & C. Agniel), 1831, Fifth Street. Robinson & Fairbank Cincinnati Directory 1831; “1 Coach-lace, fringe and military equipment factory employing 7 people for a product of $15,400.” Cincinnati in 1841: Its Early Annals and Future Prospects. Cincinnati, OH : C. Cist, 1841, page 288.
P. Hayden, circa 1841-1855, manufactured coach lace circa; partner in Hayden and Holmes of Auburn, New York and Hayden & Letchworth, Auburn, NY.
From–“Documents Including Messages and Other Communications Made to the Fortieth General Assembly of the State of Ohio”. Part I.–Vol. VI. Columbus, 1842 Document No. 31, Special Report of the Warden of the Penitentiary… Office of Ohio Penitentiary, Columbus, Dec. 29, 1841– we know that on page 1 coach lace is mentioned as being made in the prison. On page 2 we know 11 men were employed in making coach lace and they were paid 32 cents per day. P. Hayden & Co’s contract, dated December 22, 1840, will expire October 1st, 1846. This contract is not to exceed 200 men.
P. Hayden had many enterprises and factories in Ohio in 1850 the Birmingham Works is mentioned on State Avenue…in the centre building is machinery for spinning, carding, & c. History of the City of Columbus Capital of Ohio by Alfred E. Lee. page 327.
James Butland, 1774-by 1793, changed to cord wainder at 80 No. Fourth Street, No Butland by 1796
James Butland, Fringe and Lace Maker from Bristol. Begs leave to inform the Public, that he makes and sells the following articles, in Front-Street, between Race and Vine-Streets, viz. Fringe and lace of all sorts, for beds and other furniture, with lines and tossels of all kinds, either in gold, silver, silk, worsted or thread; coach-makers laces, and other trimmings for ditto; Saddlers orris, fringe, bridle, reins, &c. Gold, silver or silk jacks or frogs for ladies riding dresses; ditto for gentlemens cloathes, gentlemens coats of arms or foot-mens liveries made to any pattern; silk knee garters; ladies trimmings in gold, silver or silk, in English and French fashions, with turbands, sheneals and gimps, &c. Fringe, gimp and sheneal trimmings for silk and cloth cloaks; all kinds of velvet trimmings, with a number of other articles. N. B. The above articles of silk and worsted are made of the produce of America, and any persons having silk of their own may have it manufactured into any of the above articles, or made proper for making silk stockings, sewing silk, ribbons, &c. Either men or women that have been used to any of the above branches in other countries, or any that are willing to learn, from ten years old and upwards, may have employment either by the month or as apprentices, by applying as above. Pennsylvania Packet No. 147 August 15, 1774. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland, Fringe and Lace-Maker, from Bristol, Continues to make and sell the following articles, either wholesale or retail, in Front Street, between Race and Vine Streets, viz. Coach maker’s laces of all sorts in silk or worsted, figure or plain, with glass strings, holders, roses, bearers, French nailing, hammer cloth fringe, &c. All sorts of fringe and laces for beds and other
furniture, with lines and tossels, in gold, silver, silk, worsted or thread. Gentlemen’s coats of arms, and footmen’s liveries made to any pattern, olivets or jacks for gentlemen’s cloaths, ladies trimmings for sacks or gowns, made to any pattern in the English or French fashions, with many other articles, in the fancy way. Said Butland returns his most humble thanks to his friends and customers for the favors he has already receive (which have been much beyond his expectations) and hopes for a continuance. He also assures them, that he hath it in his power now to serve them better than before, and will make it his particular study to do it; and he likewise assures them and the public, that no advantage shall be taken on account of the troubles between Britain and America, as any person that has had any dealings with him, knows, that he retails his goods cheaper than ever they were in this country before, and as good in quality as are imported, although the materials that those goods are made with, cost more, and some of them cost twice the money, before they are put into the loom, that those very goods are purchased for ready made in England, yet he hopes to establish a useful manufactory in this city, he is determined to sell on the lowest terms possible.
N. B. An apprentice is wanted to the said business, and also a person that understands making of any of the above works.Pennsylvania Journal, No. 1676. January 18, 1775.
James Butland, Fringe and lace maker, in Front street, between Race and Vine streets, makes and sells wholesale and retail, the following articles on the most reasonable terms, viz. Coach makers laces and fringes of all kinds, either of silk or worsted, figured or plain, with glass strings, holders, roses, bearers, French nailing, and every other article proper for trimming carriages. Upholders laces and fringes of all sorts, with tossels, made to any pattern or colour, gentlemens coats of arms and footmens liveries made to any pattern, ladies trimmings for sacks or gowns made to any pattern, Hatters trimmings of all sorts, and a great many other articles in the fancy way & c.
N. B. Any shopkeeper or others, that have any gold or silver lace or vellum that is unfashionable and not fit for sale, may have it taken to pieces and made into fringe, espauletts, or tossels for collars, or having gold or silver threads, tambour or fleazies or any sort, may have it made into lace or fringe to any pattern, on reasonable terms, and at a short notice, or having any of the above to sell, may hear or a purchaser by applying as above. Pennsylvania Ledger No. 22 June 24, 1775. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime Ffile, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland – In Front street between Race and Vine streets. Makes and sells the following articles, wholesale or retail, on the most reasonable terms. – viz. silk sword belts, … officers and soldiers uniforms, in gold, silver, silk, worsted &c. Coach-makers laces and fringes … with glass strings, holders, rose, bearers, French nailing. … Pennsylvania Packet, No. 197. July 31, 1775. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland, Fringe and Lace-Maker, in Front Street, between Race and Vine streets, makes and sells the following articles, wholesale or retail, viz. Coach-Makers lace and fringe, with other trimmings for all sorts of carriages; saddlers and upholsterers lace and fringe, with line and tossels made to any pattern or colour; gold and silver epaulets for officers, with other uniforms; footmens liveries made to any pattern; velvet for binding mens hats, with silk and worsted looping and bands for hats; gimp, trimmings and silk fringes for womens cloaks; with a great many other articles in the fancy way, &c.
N. B. Any person having gold, silver, silk, worsted, or thread, and would have it manufactured into any of the above articles, may, by applying as above, have it done on reasonable terms, and at a short notice. Pennsylvania Journal, No. 1716. October 25, 1775 and Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 2445. November 1, 1775. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland, Lace-Maker, in Front Street, between Race and Vine Streets, makes and sells the following articles wholesale and retail, viz. All kinds of uniforms for officers and soldiers, in gold, silver, silk, worsted, or thread, made to any pattern, for trimming hats, clothes, &c. Silk sword belts, velvet binding, very fine white muffatees, fir for officers or soldiers to exercise in, together with all kinds of laces and fringes, where store-keepers, coachmakers, upholsterers, hatters, saddlers, and others, may be supplied with any quantity, either in town or country, on the most reasonable terms.
N. B. If any commanding officer, or other gentleman, wants any particular dress made in gold or silver, to any pattern, he may, by applying as above, have it done at a short notice. Pennsylvania Evening Post, No. 165. February 10, 1776. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland, Spitze-und Borten-Macher, Lace and gallon maker, in Front Street between Race and Vine streets, makes and sells the following articles in large and small quantities; namely, all kinds of trimmings for uniforms for officers and soldiers in gold, silver, silk, fine wool or linen thread, after any pattern, for dressing hats, clothes, &c. Silk sword belts, very fine whit Müffgen for officers and soldiers in which to train, together with all kinds of galloons and fringes; Storekeepers, coachmakers, upholsterers, hat makers, can be provided with any quantity of such articles, both in the city and in the country, at the cheapest price.
N. B. In case any commanding officer or other gentleman wishes a certain suit of clothes trimmed with gold or silver after any pattern, and he applies to the said place, he may have them on short notice. Staatsbote, No. 775. February 28, 1776.From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland, Fringe and Lace-Maker, in Front Street, near Arch Street makes and sells the following articles, wholesale or retail, viz. All kinds of uniforms for officers and soldiers, in gold, silver, silk, worsted or thread; where whole battalions may be supplied with lace for hats or clothes and made to any pattern or color, at a short notice. Likewise Coachmakers, Upholsterers, Saddlers and Hatters trimmings, etc. etc. Great price will be given for gold or silver lace, either old or new, or gold or silver thread, sleazey or tambour, in any quantity. Wanted 3 or 4 hands, either men or women, that can weave ribbons, lace, fringe, tapes, or other narrow work, who can be well recommended, may have constant work, and good wages; or any willing to learn the above business, from 12 years old and upwards may by applying as above have good encouragement. Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 2485 & 2493. August 7, 1776. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland – Advertised for runaway servant, John Webber. Pennsylvania Evening Post, No. 308 January 30, 1777. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
Butland and Gollen 1777-1778
James Butland, fringe and lace maker, begs leave to inform the public that he has removed into Second Street, between Arch and Market Streets, where the manufactory is carried on by Butland and Gollen, lace and thread makers, and where may be had all kinds of uniforms for officers, in gold and silver, all kinds of laces and trimmings for drummers, soldiers hats, cloths made to any pattern or colour, either for whole battalions or for a single suit, all kinds of girth webbs, and other trimmings for saddlers and coachmakers use, likewise hatters trimmings, and all kinds of coloured and white sewing and knitting thread. A number of good honest spinners of flax, cotton, wool and worsted, are also wanted at the above said manufactories, who will find the best encouragement, and good pay for their work. The most money is likewise given by said Butland and Gollen, for all sorts of gold and silver lace new or old, for raw realed silk, and for clean swingled flax, wool and worsted, for well and even spun linen yarn, and good cotton rough and spun. Pennsylvania Evening Post, No. 311. February 6, 1777. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
Jacob Butland, Borten-Weber, Jacob Bortland, gallon maker, begs leave to notify the public that he has moved from the 1st. Street to 2nd street between Arch and Market streets at which place is the manufactory of said Butland and Gollen, of all kinds of gallons and thread. There are to be had from them all kinds of lace for officers in gold and silver, all kinds of galloons for drummers, and soldier’s hats and clothes, after any pattern and colour, for whole battalions or single suits; all kinds
of saddle girths, and all gallons for saddlers and coachmakers use; likewise gallon for hats; also all kinds of coloured, gray and white thread, twisted 3-ply thread for wig makers, and thread from which to knit or weave stockings. A number of good and worthy spinners of flax, cotton and woolen, will receive in said factory the best encouragement and good pay. The highest price will likewise be given by said Butland and Gollen for all kinds of gold and silver lace, old and new; for raw reeled silk and for clean swingled flax, raw and combed wool; well spun yarn, spun and unspun cotton, also woolen yarn, Staatsbote, No. 846. February 12, 1777.
A Person well acquainted with the Woollen and Linen Manufactory, in their various branches, would be glad to have the Superintendence of a public or private manufactory, either in this City or Country. — Proper Credentials may be had of his Ability, by applying to James Butland. Gold and Silver Lace Weaver in Second Street. Pennsylvania Gazette.February 19, 1777. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland, Fringe and Lace-Maker, begs leave to inform the public. That he has removed into Second Street, between Arch and Market Street where the Manufactory is carried on by Butland and Gollen, Lace and Thread makers; where may be had, all kinds of uniforms for officers in gold or silver, and all kinds of laces and trimmings for drummers and soldiers hats and cloathes; likewise livery laces, made to any pattern or colour, either for whole battalions or a single suit; all kinds of girth webbs and other trimmings for saddlers and coachmakers use, and likewise hatters trimmings, and all kinds of sewing and knitting threads, white and coloured. A number of good honest spinners for flax, cotton, wool and worsted, are also wanted at the above said manufactory, where they will find, the best encouragement and good pay for their work. The most money is given there for clean swingled flax, wool, worsted, good cotton rough and spun; for all sorts of gold and silver lace new and old, and for raw silk well reeled.Pennsylvania Journal, No. 1780. March 12, 1777.From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland – The subscriber desires the public not to trust a certain Thomas Gadd and his Wife, weavers, as they will find it difficult to get their money, they being his servants, but have endeavored to make people believe they are free, and by that means live great part of their time in drunkenness and idleness, to their own discredit and my loss.Pennsylvania Evening Post, No. 387.August 5, 1777. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland, Fringe and Lace maker, Begs leave to inform the public, that he has removed his lace manufactory from Second Street into Front Street, between Market and Chestnut Streets, where he manufactures all kinds of uniforms for the army, in gold or silver, silk or worsted; where whole battalions may be supplied with trimmings for hats and cloaths, made to any pattern or colour at a short notice; Likewise all sorts of girth webbs and other trimmings for saddlers, coachmakers, and upholsterers; all kinds of livery, laces, binding, &c.
N. B. Good wages will be given to workmen that understands making garters or tapes in a twelve or twenty four shuttle loom: Likewise livery lace, orriss or fringe. Weavers and worsted spinners are wanted. Pennsylvania Journal, No. 1803. August 20, 1777. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland, Fringe and Lace Maker. Begs leave to inform the public, that he has removed his Lace Manufactory from Second Street into Front Street, between Market and Chestnut Streets, where he manufactures all kinds of uniforms for the army, in gold or silver, silk or worsted; where whole battalions may be supplied with trimmings for hats and clothes, made to any pattern or colour at a short notice; Likewise all sorts of girth webbs and other trimmings for saddlers, coachmakers and upholsterers; all kinds of livery, laces, bindings etc.
N. B. Good wages will be given workmen that understand making garters or tapes in a twelve or twenty-four shuttle loom; Likewise livery lace, orriss or fringe – weavers and worsted spinners are wanted. Pennsylvania Gazette, no. 2531. August 27, 1777. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland, Fringe and lace maker, begs leave to inform the public, that he has removed his lace manufactory from Second street into Front street, between Market and Chestnut streets, where he manufactures all kinds of uniforms for the army in gold, silver, silk, or worsted; and whole battalions may be supplied with bindings and other uniforms, made to any pattern or colour, at a short notice. Likewise all sorts of girths webs and other trimmings for saddlers, coachmakers, and upholsterers.
N.B. Good wages will be given to workmen that can work either garters or tapes in a twelve or twenty-four shuttle loom. Likewise to either men or women that can make, or will learn to make, any of the following works, viz. Girth web, livery lace, ribband, orris, or fringe. A few worsted spinners are also wanted. Pennsylvania Evening Post. No. 393. August 19, 1777. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
James Butland. As the subscriber is going to England, all persons to whom he is indebted, are desired to bring in their accounts, that they may be settled. – Benjamin Hawkes, at James Butland’s lace maker in Front Street.
N. B. Those gentlemen of the army who have clothes and other articles in his hands, are desired to send for them. Pennsylvania Evening Post. No. 455, February 10, 1778. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
James Butland, Lacemaker, in Front-street, between Market and Chestnut streets, Makes and sells all kinds of uniforms for the army, in gold, silver, silk or worsted. Likewise girth webs, and all kinds of saddlers, coachmakers, upholsterers, and hatters trimmings, &c. Said Butland has garters, taoes, bindings and other articles to be sold for lawful paper money. Wanted two or three good orriss or livery lace weavers, and a few worsted spinners. Pennsylvania Evening Post. No. 457. February 17, 1778. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
James Butland – Wanted a house to rent, in any part of the town between Race and Spruce streets, that has from six to twenty rooms in it. Any person having such a one to let, may be farther informed by applying to James Butland, lacemaker in Front Street.
P. S. As he is under the necessity of moving, a good rent will be given for a suitable house. Pennsylvania Evening Post. No. 467, March 18, 1778. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
James Butland, Lace Maker, In Front Street, between Arch and Race Streets, Makes and sells all kinds of uniforms for the army, in gold, silver, silk or worsted, to any pattern or colour; girth webbs of all sorts, with other trimmings for saddlers, coach makers, upholsterers and hatters; worsted bindings and tapes of all sorts, &c. &c.
Wanted by said Butland, a man that understands working a twelve shuttle loom, and one for a twenty four ditto; likewise two or three girth webb and lace weavers, to whom good wages will be given. Also two boys as apprentices, from ten to fifteen years old. Pennsylvania Packet. July 25, 1778. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
Butland and Gollen, All persons indebted to the late partnership of Butland and Gollen, are desired to take notice not to pay any debt without an order signed by the subscriber; and all persons having demands on the said partnership are desired to bring in their accounts as soon as possible to have them settled. James Butland. Pennsylvania Evening Post. No. 512. August 1, 1778 From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
Wanted, Three or four Weavers, such as lace, fringe, garter or girth webb weaves. Any such persons may have constant employ and good wages, by applying to the subscriber in Front street, near Arch Street. James Butland. Pennsylvania Packet. November 19, 1778. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
James Butland, Fringe and Lace-Maker, Begs leave to inform the public in general, and his friends in particular, that he has removed out of Front-street into Second-street, between the Bridge and Spruce-Street, where may be had all kinds of Uniforms for the Army. Shopkeepers,
coachmakers, hatters, saddlers, and others, may be supplied with all kinds of worsted binding, linings, tapes, saddle orriss, girth webs, fringe of all sorts, line and tassels for beds and window curtains, &c.Pennsylvania Journal. No. 1287 May 12, 1779 and Pennsylvania Gazette. No. 2552-53-56. May 12, 1779. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
To be sold, a valuable plantation and tract of land, situate in Chester county, about 40 miles from Philadelphia, 16 from Wilmington, 13 from Newport, and 10 from Newark, containing about 260 acres, about one half whereof is cleared, and the other half good woodland. Said plantation is accommodated with an excellent stream of water, sufficient for mills or any other waterworks, which stream waters about 30 acres of good meadow, and as much more may be made and watered by several lesser streams of water. There are on said plantation, a frame house, with two rooms on a floor and a chimney in each, a new log barn, and an apple orchard of above 100 bearing apple trees. The title indisputable. Any person inclining to purchase the same, may be informed of the price, conditions of sale, and other particulars, by applying to Mr. Alexander Todd, Merchant, in Front street, between Market and Chestnut streets, or Mr. James Butland, Lacemaker, in Second Street, below the Bridge, or Mr. John Jervis, Tavern keeper, at the Sign of the Conestogoe Waggon, in Market Street, Philadelphia. Pennsylvania Gazette. May 26, 1779. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime Ffile, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
James Butland, Fringe and Lace-Maker, In Second street, between Walnut an Spruce Streets. Manufacturers and sells all kinds of uniforms for officers, in gold or silver; sergeants sashes and epaulets, to any pattern or colour; hat and other laces for soldiers; lace, fringe, line and tassels for bed and window curtains; gentlemens frogs, to suit any pattern; ladies fringe and tassels for gowns; parisnet for ladies caps; all sorts of livery and coach lace; saddle orriss webs; worsted bindings; tapes and garters; with hatters and other trimmings, &c. Pennsylvania Journal, No. 1316, December 1, 1779. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
James Butland – To be sold by James Butland, gold and silver lace maker, in Second street, between Walnut and Spruce streets. Gold and silver lace, officers epaulets, louping round or flat, tassels for hats, silk frogs for gentlemen or ladies, fringes and bed tassels of all kinds, coachmakers lace figured or plain, saddlers fringes and arras.
N. B. Ready money for old gold or silver lace. Freeman’s Journal. No. LII,April 17, 1782.From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
The private affairs of the subscriber, and advice of his Physicians, have induced him to take a voyage to Europe during the present winter, from whence he proposes to return in the spring; in the mean time he informs all persons having any law business in his hands, that it will be carried on during his absence under the direction of I. Ingersol, Esq; in Market Street, near Fourth Street; in other business, he hath appointed Charles Pettit, Esq; and the said Mr. Ingersol, his Attornies in fact; and those who have any concerns with the West Jersey Society may apply to Mr. James Butland, who is continued in the general care of that interest; and for payment of any taxes accruing thereon, to Mr. Ingersol, Joseph Reed. Pennsylvania Gazette. November 26, 1783. From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
John Butland, 1809-1824 lace and fringe weaver
John Butland Wagner’s Alley 1809
John Butland, 137 Cherry Street 1810-1824
Mary Butland, 1785-1810,fringe and tassel weaver not coachlace
Mary Butland, Fringe and Tassel Maker, Begs leave to acquaint her friends and others, that she continues the said business at her house, on the east side of Front Street, between Spruce and Pine Streets. Pennsylvania Packet. No. 1952, May 9, 1785.
Mary Butland, 186 Spruce, tassel and fringe maker, 1806-1810
Edward F. Calberts, 1850,from 1850 federal census 2nd Ward Kensington, Philadelphia, PA transcribed by Cyndie Eckman, c 2000.
Columbia Manufacturing Company name used by Wm. H. Horstmann & Sons for coach lace business. Bruce S. Bazelon. Horstmanns: The Enterprise of Military Equipage. Camp Hill, PA : Bruce S. Bazelon, 1997, page 128.
Henry Duhring, 1829. Bruce S. Bazelon. Horstmanns: The Enterprise of Military Equipage. Camp Hill, PA : Bruce S. Bazelon, 1997, page 27.
Frederick Hoeckly, 1785-1820
Frederick Hoeckly, 1793-1797, 322 North Second Street after
Frederick Hoeckly, 1797-1798, 306 North Second Street
Frederick Hoeckly, 1799-1820, 304 north Second, lace & fringe weaver; changed to William H. Horstman.
Frederick Hoeckly, Lace and Fringe-Maker, At Mr. Christian Snyder’s the upper end of Germantown, Begs leave to inform his Friends and the Public in general, that he makes looping, bound or flat; tossels for hats; fringes and bed-tossels of all kinds; coachmakers lace, figured or plain; saddlers fringes and arras; gold and silver epaulets, and every other kind of work belonging to his profession. Those gentlemen and ladies who will please to employ him, may depend on having their work done in the neatest and best manner, and at the very lowest rate, by applying to him at the above-mentioned place, or by leaving orders at Mr. Peter Hay’s Innkeeper, in Third-street, Philadelphia.Independent Gazetteer. No. 205.October 1, 1785.From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
Frederick Hoeckly, Fringe and Lace Maker, returns his sincere, thanks to his friends and the public for their past favors and encouragement, and most respectfully informs them that he has removed from Germantown to No. 323 North Second Street, (Northern Liberties) near the Reverend Mr. Pntrorn’s ; where he makes all sorts of figured and plain laces, livery lace, hammercloth and all sorts of other fringes, tassels and fringes for bed and window curtains, to where coachmakers and others may be constantly supplied with the above articles, made in the neatest and best manner, on reasonable terms. Northern Liberties. May 25, 1793.From Decorative Arts Photographic Collection, Prime File, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
William H. Horstmann 1816-1939.
William Horstmann 1816 arrived from Europe and started weaving for Frederick Hoeckly
William H. Horstmann & Co., 45 & 55 North Third , lace and fringe weaver, 1820-1843
William H. Horstmann & Co. first store No. 59 North Third Street later known as No. 51 added the property at No. 55 North Street
William H. Horstmann & Co., 1823 added branch house in New York
William H. Horstmann & Co., 1831 new factory at Germantown Road and Columbia Avenue
William H. Horstmann & Co., 1842 new factory built on the old site of No. 55 Third Street
William H. Horstmann & Co., 1843, changed name to Wm. H. Horstmann and Sons.
William H. Horstmann and Sons, 1852 new factory at Fifth and Cherry Streets
William H. Horstmann and Sons, 1860 addition to factory consolidating their business into one location.
Boston, 7 Temple Place, Salesrooms in 1904
Baltimore, 501 Union Trust Building, Salesrooms in 1904
San Francisco, 916 Market Street, Salesrooms in 1904
Detroit, 15 Kanter Building, Salesrooms in 1904
Wm. H. Horstmann & Sons, 1893, changed to Wm. H. Horstmann Company
Wm. H. Horstmann Company merged with The Textile Company.
Wm. H. Horstmann Company was dissolved July 11, 1939 with George F. Schaefer as President.
Henry Korn 1812-retired by 1860
Henry Korn, 1816, 180 Sassafras, lace and fringe manuf.
Henry Korn, 1820, 82 North Second, lace and fringe manuf.
Henry Korn, 1831-1850, 22 North 3rd, manuf. Coach lace, fringe, military goods
Henry Korn, 1858-1860, 217 North 5th, military goods
Henry Korn, 1860, 217 North 5th, gentlemen, retired about
Henry Korn, Central Market District at 82 N. Second Street, had been active since 1812 in manufacturing “Lace, Fringe, Bindings, Cords and Tassels, Epaulets … wings, wostal Pompons, and a variety of other military articles.” He described his equipment in exhausting detail: 10 lace and fringe looms, one warping mill, one gimp mill, one twister mill, one scraping mill, five spooling wheels, 50 shuttles, 3,000 bobbins and quills, one pair wool combs, pots etc. Silvering, drawing and roving machines, spinning machines containing 36 spindles together, 2 boilers for dyeing, with the appertaining apparatus, fixtures, etc., one washing machine, one Bullious mill, with many others articles small in nature, too tedious to mention, one Bleaching Box.
Capital invested $5,600
Besides the building in which it is carried on $1,650
The dwelling and front shop $8,000
Henry Korn prepared an essay on the state of affairs on his trade in 1820. “As respect the actual and past conditions, I would beg to state that in the years 1814 and 1816 the sales was about three times what they are now for since the General Peace in Europe the Manufactures of Tapestries, military articles, etc. (who where employed by the European armies) loosening at once their resources, on finding a market open to them in the United States literally glutted it so that upholstery trimmings have been for some time sold lower at our Auction establishments and by Private Sale than they could be manufactured for either in England, France or Germany, to the great Detriment and almost inevitable ruin of the same class of manufactures in this country. In the year 1814 I had three men four boys and nine women in my employ all with cheering countenance fired with the stimulus of business, but now it is quite the reverse, for even what little is done is reluctantly done because it is hardly wanted.
As respects Coach Trimming, that is very little in demand now owing to the general depressed state as almost all those who formerly kept carriages or gigs now have them to dispose of-til the year 1817 every country merchant that came to Philadelphia to purchase goods wanted tapestries also but nowthey are forgotten.
It will also be remembered that wool, cotton, and flax are staple articles of this country and we can also manufacture from these same materials all kinds of military trimmings necessary to be used in the United States and but for that these same articles would have cost enormous prices. During the last war with Great Britain, and moreover would have been in all probability manufactured by the very enemies with whom we where contending. The little business that is doing at this time is effected by humoring it in every way by sometimes selling lower than can well be afforded and sometimes by effecting barters, etc; with reasonable protection by Government I am confident all these articles would be manufactured at very low prices the different processes of late having been very much improved upon. I will further observe that my capital here invested which is the whole recompense for ten years industry, economy, perseverance and enterprise does not at present with all my exertions four per centum per annum which I humbly submit to impartial legislators to say weather it is fair, whether it is hard or not that useful industry must thus suffer and thus be rewarded. The best proof of a declining system is that in former years a profit would be realized without extraordinary talent or exertions but at present neither nor both will suffice to deep even handed, may it requires the strictest unremitting attention to ward the horrors of bankruptcy.
It is sincerely hoped that congress as an enlightened legislating body and as the sole guardians of the nation will adopt such measures as in their superior wisdom will nourish and protect the manufacturing interest and useful industry of this country and not suffer us to be drained of our last dollar in support of foreign monopoly. My humble opinion is that there need be no fear of manufacturers charging too high by being too well protected-the spirit for embarking into the different branches is already too well evinced and on the other hand they will prevent foreign monopolizers from taking the advantage whenever a war or any other circumstance might justify them. All of which is respectfully submitted by the government’s humble servant. Henry Korn. 18201820 Manufacturing Census Schedules, Eastern District, Pennsylvania, no. 587
Henry Korn, Coach-Lace, Fringe, Cord & Tassel Manufacturer, No. 82, North Second Street, Between Race and Arch Streets, Philadelphia; Where is also kept constantly on hand, a general assortment of fashionable trimmings for ladies’ dresses, &c.; military articles; hatters’ trimmings, and all colours of worsted and woollen yarn, wholesale and retail, on the most reasonable terms.
N. B. Orders from any part of the United States executed with punctuality. Whitely’s Philadelphia Directory, 1820.
There is a Henry Korn, Jr. listed as a clerk starting in 1861, but there is no indication that he is continuing the coach lace business.
Peter Mintzer , 1818-1839
1818 1822, coach trimmer & c. Thirteenth bel. Vine.
1823-1824, coach trimmer & c. 75 Mulberry Paxton’s Annual Philadelphia Directory
1828, coach trimmer & c. 83 N 3d Deliver’s Philadelphia Directory
1830-1835, fringe weaver 83N 3d Deliver’s Philadelphia Directory
1837, military trim store 83 N 3d h. 56 NEW Deliver’s Philadelphia Directory
1837-1839, fly nets and coach lace 83 N 3d. H. 56 NEW M’Elroy’s Philadelphia, PA, Directory
William G. Mintzer & Co.
1840, fly nets and coach lace 83 N 3d M’Elroy’s Philadelphia, PA, Directory
1841-1842, fly nets and coach lace 83 N 3d h. 65 Tamrnany M’Elroy’s Philadelphia, PA, Directory
William G. Mintzer
1842, fly nets and coach lace 83 N 3 d h. 3d bel Carpenter
1844-1856, fly nets and coach lace 83 N 3 d h. 3d ab Washington
1857, fly nets regalia and military goods 83 N 3 d h. 3d ab Washington
1858-1859, fly nets , regalia and military goods 131 N 3d h. 1033 S 3d
1860-1861, military goods 131 N 3d h. 1033 S 3d
1863-1867, military goods and society furnisher 131 N 3d h. 225 Catherine; William G. Mintzer died about 1869 and the business was sold to R. M. Robinson. Bruce S. Bazelon; W. F. McGuinn. A Directory of American Military Goods, Dealers and Makers 1785-1885. Manassas, VA : authors, 1987, page 59.
Jonas Osborn, 1743
Jonas Osborn, Lace-Weaver, from Dublin, Makes and sells all sorts of …Coach and Saddle Fringe, Chaise-reins, Womens Bridle reins … Livery lace, shoulder Knots for Gentlemen’s Servants… N. B. Said Osborn may be spoke with at Mr. Price’s Cooper, in Front Street, near M’Comb’s Alley.The Pennsylvania Gazette. May 5, 1743. Collection of Paul Downing.
Sebastian Salade 1796-1820
Sebastian Salade, Fringe and Lace Weaver, Is lately removed, from north Second Street, to no. 4 in Laetitia court, in Market Street, between Front and Second Streets. Where he manufacturers and sells, all kinds of Coach and Livery Laces, also, fringes, tassels and lines. Orders from a distance will be punctually complied with, on the shortest notice and most reasonable terms. Federal Gazette. No. 2495, October 24, 1796. From Decorative Arts and Photographic collection, Prime file, Henry Francis DuPont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware
Sebastian Salade, Fringe, Lace, Tassel and Line Maker. Takes this opportunity to inform the public and his former customers and friends, that he is removed from Second Street, into No. 4, Laetitia Court, Market Street, between Front and Second Streets; where he carries on the above business, as usual. He will always endeavor to please his customers with good and neat work on the most reasonable terms. Pennsylvania Packet (Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser). No. 5409, August 9, 1796. From Decorative Arts and Photographic collection, Prime file, Henry Francis DuPont Winterthur Museum Library, Winterthur, Delaware.
Sebastian Salade, 1798-1803, 4 Laetita Court
Sebastian Salade, 1803-1820, 10 North 6th Street
Philip Schuman 1788-1790 was a spinner, dyer, and weaver that worked for the coach factory of George and William Hunter. Philip Schuman had responded to an ad by the Hunters for an offer of “constant Employment” in November 1788 and continued as a weaver and dyer until 1790. In sixteen months he produced 2,200 yards of lace and coach trimmings that had a market value of about £150. From the Hunters’ flax and wool, local spinsters made yarn and thread for Schuman to dye. He then wove several types of coach laces in ten different color patterns to complement the paints and upholstery materials used in the shop. Schuman also made matching hand loops for interior door frames and the “glass strings” used to raise and lower carriage windows. His most utilitarian projects were girth and straining webs; his most esoteric were tassled silk fringes. He routinely produced great lengths of bicolored half lace. Schuman’s skills allowed the firm to customize carriage interiors to an extent that would have been impracticable had they been forced to rely on standard or imported laces. Schuman was able to combine colors and motifs in woven goods in accord with a patron’s choice of carriage paints and upholstery cloth. And he was able to produce as much as eighty yards of lace per week. Exclusive access to this kind of service gave the Hunters greater flexibility in filling vehicle orders and was apparently of real importance to them, since they were willing to tolerate Schuman’s irregular work habits.
The weaver was absent frequently, missing as many as five of six workdays weekly in the winter of 1789. In the six-month period from January 8 to July 7, 1789, Schuman drew full pay with the other journeymen, although he lost 30 percent of the regular work hours. Since Schuman was paid while not working, he became indebted to his employers. In addition, the Hunters became responsible for his bail and for minor drafts that brought their expenses on Schuman’s behalf to almost £53. Yet the total value the 700 yards of lace that he produced during the period was less than £50. Lace production was important enough to justify support of a craftsman whose expenses exceeded the value of his product and whose debt stood in high proportion to his earnings. Although the presence of a weaver and dyer at the coach factory may not have been profitable as an isolated venture, Schuman’s skills were valuable to the firm because they made available special trimmings on short notice, enabling the Hunters to satisfy the tastes of their customers without expensive delays.16, 17, 18
George H. A. Slendom, 1850, 29 years old born in Germany. 1850 federal census 2nd Ward Kensington, Philadelphia, PA transcribed by Cyndie Eckman, c 2000.
John Streeton, 1793, lace and fringe maker. Advertisement of estate of John Streeton, deceased. Federal Gazette, No. 1587, November 8, 1793.
Jonathan Hill, 1790, listed girth webb, fringe and lace as his products. Correspondence of Alexander Hamilton.
PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND
John Thorp, 1829, December 22, [1829 patent], weaving narrow stuffs, such as ribbons, webbing, tapes, ferrets, girthings, chaise lace, fringes, etc., without the use of shuttles. Bishop, J. Leander; Freedley, Edwin T.; Young, Edward. A History of American Manufacturers From 1608-1860 Exhibiting the Origin and Growth of the Principal Mechanic Arts and Manufacturers, From the Earliest Colonial Period to the Adoption of the Constitution, and Comprising Annals of Industry of the United States In Machinery, Manufacturers and Useful Arts, With A Notice of Important Inventions, Tariffs and the Results of Each Decennial Census. Philadelphia, PA : E. Young; London : S. Low., 1864, page 341. other editions: 1864, 1964, 1966, 1967.
Flynn and Emrick, 1845,coach lace weavers, on Franklin Street, behind Birch Alley and 17th Street.Richmond City Directory. 1845, page 78.changed to Flynn, Emrick and Murrill, of Baltimore, Maryland.
Coach Lace Manufacturers other than the United States
Weaver of Coach Laces. Royal Australian Historical Society. Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society. 1965, page 123.
Joseph Brown, 1851, age 66, Coach Lace Weaver. 1851 Census-Main List.
Richard Harrison, 1851, age 56, Coach Lace Weaver. 1851 Census-Main List.
Elizabeth Richard, 1851, age 68, Coach Lace Weaver. 1851 Census-Main List.
Samuel Richard, 1851, age 28 son, Coach Lace Weaver. 1851 Census-Main List.
John Swann, 1851, age 24, Coach Lace Maker. 1851 Census-Main List.
Eliza Jones, age 46, Livery Lace Maker, Bedminster. 1851 Census-Main List.
Hannah Aldridge, 1851, Age 30, Coach Lace Weaver, Grosvenor Street, West 19 Cour. 1851 Census-Main List.
Carriage Lace, Fringe and Company, 1850, 38 Broad Street, Birmingham. 1850 Melville
Kean & Scott, 1878-1885, carriage lace manufacture, Corporation Street, Birmingham & 57 Cox Street, Coventry. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660; Post Office Directory of Birmingham, 1878, page 460.
Keen, Bailey and Scott, 1867, 34-35 Union Street, Birmingham. 1867 Post Office Directory.
William Layfield, 1818 coach lace maker, Coleshill-street. Wrightson’s New Triennial Directory of Birmingham. Birmingham : R. Wrightson, 1818, page 80.
William Marston, 1878-1885, Albert Street, carriage lace manufacturer. Andy Foster. Birmingham.page 84; Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660.Post Office Directory of Birmingham, 1878, page 460.
Elizabeth Onion, 1851, 38 Broad Street, Birmingham. Exhibition of the Works of Industry Of All Nations, 1851. Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue. Vol. 2, page 562.
Grace Ann Onion, 1878, 8 Union Street. Post Office Directory of Birmingham, 1878, page 146, 460.
Thomas Onion, 1830, Bristol-road 368, manufacturer of coach & livery lace fringes tassels bell pulls epaulettes hearse plumes bed lace canvasses & c.William, West, 1830 Directory of Warwickshire-Birmingham Section.
Joseph Randall, 1818, lace manufacturer, Bradford-street. Wrightson’s New Triennial Directory of Birmingham. Birmingham : R. Wrightson, 18181, page 80.
John. Swann, 1878-1885, carriage lace manufacturer, 37 & 39 Holloway Head & 50 & 51 Ellis Street. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660; (50-51 Gough Street)Post Office Directory of Birmingham…1878, page 56.
T. Walcot & Co., 1818, Coach, Livery Lace & Fringe Manufacture, Birmingham. Wrightson’s Triennial Directory of 1818.
George Bullock, 1830, Fringe and Coach Livery Lace Manufacturer, 22 St. Augustin’s Parade, Bristol. Pigots Directory of Gloucestershire for 1830.
Thomas Bright, 1830, Fringe and Coach Lace Manufacturer 21 Union Street, Bristol. Pigots Directory of Gloucestershire for 1830.
William Davis, 1830, Fringe and Coach Livery Lace Manufacturer, 8 Denmark Street & 3 Park Street, Bristol. Pigots Directory of Gloucestershire for 1830.
Mary Duke, 1830, Fringe and Coach Livery Lace Manufacturer. Pigots Directory of Gloucestershire for 1830.
Sophia Dunn, 1830, Fringe and Coach Livery Lace Manufacturer, 59 Castle Street, Bristol. Pigots Directory of Gloucestershire for 1830.
Thomas E. Stone, 1885, 7 Bath Street, carriage lace manufacturer. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660.
John Walcot, 1830, 6 Denmark Street, Bristol & Glamorgan 1865; 7 Denmark Street, Bristol, Pigots Directory of Gloucestershire for 1830.
T. Walcot and Co., 1818, livery lace, and fringe manufactory, New Street. Wrightson’s New Triennial Directory of Birmingham. 1818, page 135.
Joseph Ridgway, 1844, coach lace weaver, bankrupt. Legal Observer, or, Journal of Jurisprudence. Vol. XXVIII. London, England : Edmund Spettigue, 1844, page 161; Metropolitan Magazine Vol. XL. May to August 1844. London : Saunders & Otley, 1844, page 29.
Catherine Barnicle, 1871, Coach lace weaver, 34ctr.
Dalton, Barton & Co. Ltd., 1882, St. Nicholas Mill. 1882 Post Office Directory; Lim King Street, Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page660.
Robert Cunningham, 1852, 87 Grosvenor Street. 1852 Slater
Kean & Scott, 1885, carriage lace manufacture, Corporation Street, Birmingham & 57 Cox Street, Coventry. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660.
J. Perkins and Son, 1861, at Coventry. 1861 Derby & Leicester. also listed as Joshua Perkins & Son, Payne’s Lane. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660.
Thomas Thompson, 1842-1853, of Coventry, in the county of Warwick, weaver and machinist, patented on June 21, 1842 British patent number 9573 a loom for weaving figured fabrics. His drawings show multiple rows of narrow fabric such as coach lace. A description of a law-suit of this patent in the column “Court of Exchequer, Wednesday, June 22.” The Times, Thursday, Jun 23, 1853 page 7; Issue 21462; col C. Another patent was issued October 19, 1853 (No. 2417).
Charles Dould, Spa Lane Mills, Derby
Ernest Turner Ltd., Stuart Street, Derby
J. Perkins and Son, 1861, Labenham, Nr Market Harborough. 1861 Derby & Leicester.
Hy. Lewis Brewster, 1850, coach lace and fringe manufacture, 3 Catherine Street
Thomas Trist Goodrige, 1850, coach lace and fringe manufacture, 31 New Bridge Street
Francis Kingdon, 1850, coach lace and fringe manufacture, 21 High Street
Gilpin & Co. 1885, carriage lace manufacture, 4 Queen Street. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660.
James George Outhwaite, 1885, carriage lace manufacture, 132 Wellington Street. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page660.
John Park, 1837-1885, Coach Trimming Manufacturer, 19 Belgrave Street. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page660; .History, Gazetteer, and Directory, of West-Riding of Yorkshire. Sheffield, England : Robert Leader, 1837, page 589; St. Peter’s Square. Official Catalogue Leeds Industrial Exhibition, 1858, page 29. Case, containing specimens of carriage lace and tassels.
Rusby & Hewdey, 1837, coach lace, fringe, girth web & whip manufacturers, 2 Albion Street. White, William. History, Gazetteer, and Directory, of West-Riding of Yorkshire. Sheffield, England : Robert Leader, 1837, page 598.
Sowden & Co., 1885, carriage lace manufacturer, 160 Wellington Street. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades.
London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660.
LINCOLN’S INN FIELDS, ENGLAND
Thomas Benson, Livery lace weaver, Great Queen-street, Lincoln’s Inn-Fields. Times June 17, 1834, page 4, issue 15506, col. F. (article refers to the illness of his wife).
Margaret Carpenter, 1767, journeywoman to Mr. Smith livery lace maker, died. Annual Register of a View of the History, Politics, and Literature, for the Year 1767. London : James Dodsley, 1800, page 59.
John Payne and Edward Payne, 1835, coach lace manufacturers, Great Queen Street. June 12, 1835. Elwick, George. The Bankrupt Directory: Being a Complete Register of All Bankrupts, With...London, England : Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., 1843, page 315; Great Queen Street, Lincoln’s Inn Fields. Metropolitan Magazine.Vol. XIII (May to Aug. 1835), page 84; Legal Observer,or, Journal of Jurisprudence, Vol. X, London : Richards & Co., 1835, page 192.
Smith, 1767, livery lace-maker in Little Queen street, Lincoln’s Ind Fields. Annual Register of a View of the History, Politics, and Literature, for the Year 1767. London : James Dodsley, 1800, page 59.
Bedford Street: Three premises still housed gold-or livery-lace makers. (1850). Bedford Street and Chandos Place Area: Bedford Street, Survey of London: volume 36: Covent Garden (1970), pages.253-63. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=46128. Date accessed: 07 April 2007.
Richard Bower, 123 Longacre Street, London.
Henry Thomas Brown, 1885, 15 Endell Street, Long Acre w. c., carriage lace manufacturer. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 361.
Robert Burgh, 1841, Little Bartholomew Close. 1841 Post Office Directory.
Cooper, Blackford, & Son, 1862-1882, for coach lace. Medals and Honourable Mentions Awarded by the International Juries. 1862, page 273; Handbook To the Industrial Department fo the International Exhibition 1862, page 392; Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades 1880, page 51.
John Cox & Son, 1885, carriage lace manufacturer. 27 High Street, St. Giles’ w. c. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 361.
C. and B. Gadson, 11 Brushfield Street, London
Stewart Carr, 1841, Addle Street. 1841 Post Office Directory.
Robert Coombs, 1836, coach trimming maker of Worship Street. Notice of being arrested for robbery.Times. Friday, December 30, 1836; page 6; Issue 16300; col E.
J. Cox, 27 High Street, Bloomsbury, London.
Ellen Daley, 1881, Inmate, Carriage Lace Maker, St. Pancras, Middlesex. 1881 Census: Residents of Bloomsbury Workhouse, Endell Street, St Giles in Fields, London, Middlesex.
Dalton, Barton & Co. Ltd. 1882-1885, 16,17 King Edward Street, Newgate Street, London. Hub. Vol. 24 No. 6 (September 1882). Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660.
Richard Dart, 1856, coach lace maker, in St. Martin’s Lane, notice of a fire. Times, Monday, November 10, 1856; page 10; Issue 22521; col E;
“There are also shown some good specimens of carriage laces. Among them are illustrations of a plan invented by Mr. Dart, for weaving consecutive numbers in lace, or even sentences, which, though not applicable to private carriages, may well be applied to the interior of railway carriages, and to the numbers of the collars of police and soldiers’ coats, caps, &c. George N. Hooper. On the Construction of Private Carriages In England; and on the Carriage Department of the Paris Exhibition of 1855: Extracted from the Journal of the Society of Arts Friday, December 7, 1855.
Dart & Son, Bedford-Street, Covent Garden, London Manufacturers specimens of carriage lace, (of original designs); a series of patterns exhibiting in chronological order the progress of the art of coach lace weaving, from 1818 to the present time. John Sproule. Irish Industrial Exhibition of 1853: A Detailed Catalogue of Its Contents, page 338; Journal of the Society of Arts. London, England : Society of Arts, 1853 pages 617-618.
Mr. Dart mentioned as making arms-lace for Countess Dowager of Berkeley in 1834, for her coachman’s livery. Reports of Cases Argued and Determined In the English Courts of Common Law by Great Britain Bail Court. Philadelphia, PA : T. & J. W. Johnson, 1853 page 684.
Richard Dart and Edward Silverwood.–July 19, 1853 British patent # 1713. This invention relates to embroidering letters and figures by loom machinery. The patentees say,–”The nature of this invention consists in the use of the loom for the production of a series of letters and numbers to any extent without alteration to the original setting up. This we effect by means of mounting the looms for nine digits and the cypher (0) so that any number can be taken and woven into the fabric where required, thereby removing the great difficulty which has hitherto always presented itself in weaving badges, viz., the remounting of the loom. In the case of the adaptation of this invention to a garment a piece of the desired size and form may be thus woven, and then be attached to the same, forming part of it.” Patents for Inventions: Abridgments of Specifications Relating to Weaving, 1861, page 435.
1885. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 361.
Davies & Co., 102 & 104, St. Martin’s Lane, London. Established 1737; Manufacturers of Livery Lace, Buttons, Aiguillettes, Epaulettes, Brais, Anchor & other buckles; medal awarded, Paris 1867. Edward B. Giles; John Mogford; Frederick T. Prewett; and Henry B. Roberts. West End Hand Book of British Liveries. London, 1882.
M. Davies & Co., 1885, Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 361; 1880, page 51. 103 & 104 Martin’s Lane.
Morgan Davis, 39 Longacre Street, London
Matthew, Davis, 90 Longacre Street. London
George Nash Downess, 1885, carriage lace manufacturer, Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 361; 1880, page 51. 3 Stratford mews, Marylebone Lane.
George and Company.
Lewis Giles, 59 Longacre Street, London
F. Gore. See Swainson & Co., London.
Harding and Co., Long Acre, London, Designers and Manufacturers–Specimens of laces, just supplied for a new dress coach to her Majesty. John Sproule. Irish Industrial Exhibition of 1853: A Detailed Catalogue of Its Contents. page 339.
Harding, William, & Co., 68 Long Acre, Designers and Manufacturers. Rude specimens of livery lace (silk and worsted surface and cotton and linen-thread foundation). Duplicate samples of trimmings and hammer-cloth mountings, made to the order of King George the third. Some of the first experiments to improve carriages laces, by separating the component materials, and producing a raised pile-figure upon a tissue ground, for which a patent was granted in 1817. Duplicate samples of fringe and hangers, made for King George the Fourth. Duplicate samples made for the Princess Charlotte. Samples made for his late Majesty William the Fourth and Adelaide the Queen Dowager; and for Louis Philippe, the late King of the French. Duplicate samples of carriage lace, and other trimmings made for Her Majesty, and their R. H. Prince Albert and the Prince of Wales. Specimens of registered lining. Specimens in contrast shades, stated to be the first attempt of this kind in figured silks. Specimens with both sides alike.
Sundry tassels, bullions, fringes, gympings, and other upholstery ornaments, to illustrate the advances in this manufacturer.
Specimens of lace, figured silk, and carpet for carriages, of different qualities. Robert Ellis. Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry. Great Britain Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, page 566.
Harding and Son, Longacre Street, Long Acre, London
F. L. Hauser. See Swainson & Co., London.
Hay Winter and Son, 26 Longacre Street, London.
Edwards Hayley, 142 Longacre Street and 140 Longacre Street, London.
George Herbert, 1875-1876, Bedford Street, Gold-lace manufacturer. Bedford Street and Chandos Place Area: Bedford Street, Survey of London: volume 36: Covent Garden (1970), pp.253-63.
Hyde, Archer and Co., 1885,140 Longacre Street, London, Coach Makers Journal. ; 7 Clerkenwell road e. c. & 140 Long Acre w. c. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 361.
Joseph W. Lea, 1841, Bath Street. 1841 Post Office Directory.
Samuel Merscy, 71 Longacre Street, London. See Wandsworth, England.
Thomas Robert Onion, 1862, Aldergate-street, bankrupt. The Jurist Vol. 8…for 1862. London : H. Sweet, 1862, page 62.
William Onion, 40 Drury Lane, London, ex-coachmaker.
J. Parsons, 1821-1841, Longacre, London. 1841 Post Office Directory; Blackwood, William. Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine. Vol. VIII (Oct.-March, 1820-1821). Edinburgh : T. Cadell ; London : W. Davies, 1821 page 704.
Thomas Paternoster, 1880, 28 Charlotte Street, Fitzroy square. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades, 1880, page 51.
Robert Payne, 25 Great Queen Street, London WC. see also Middlesex.
John Penelli, 1842, coach lace weaver. London Medical Gazette Vol. 1 for 1841-1842. London, England : Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1842, page 533-534.
Peters, Gordon Donalson & Co., 1882, Moorgate Works, Moorfields, EC. 1882 Post Office Directory.
Joseph Ridgeway and Son, 1808, 11 King Street. 1808 Directory; J. Ridgeway, Chester, fringe and coach lace manufacturer, Bankrupt. Metropolitan Magazine. Vol. XL (May to August, 1844), London : Saunders & Otley, 1844, page 29.
Eward Silverwood, 1854, weaver for Dart & Son. Mechanics’ Magazine. No. 1590 (January 28, 1854).
F. K. Stevens, 55 Wells Street, Oxford Street, London.
William Sturgeon, 1880-1885, carriage lace manufacturer, 27 Mercer Street, Longacre w.c. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 361; 1880, page 51.
John Swann, 3 Court, Essex Street, London
Swainson & Co., 1891,S. R. Sworder, F. Gore, and F. L. Hauser under the style of Swainson & Co., Huggin-Lane, E. C. and Oliver’s yard, City Road, upholstery trimming and carriage lace manufacturer dissolve their partnership. Times, Wednesday, Nov. 11, 1891; pg. 8; Issue 33479; col A.
S. R. Sworder, See Swainson & Co., London.
Unknown, 1892. No. 9 Parker Street. “On the third floor to the front lived a widow aged sixty, an English Protestant, who gained her living by weaving carriage lace on an old loom. She was paid 11/2d a yard and could earn 9d for a full day’s work. Sitting to her loom had so cramped her that she was bowed together and could not lift herself up. She was sometimes without food or a cup of tea. She took both rooms on this floor, paying 4s or 6d, and let the back room to another poor woman.”…Booth, Charles. Life and Labour of the People in London. Vol. II. London : Macmillian & Co., 1892.
Charles Ward, jurn., 5 Parker Street, Drury Lane. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1880, page 51.
T.[Thomas]Whittingham and Wilkin, 136 Long Acre, London; Whittingham, Sons and Co., carriage lace factory, notice of fire.Times, Monday, November 10, 1856; page 10; Issue 22521; col E. Same article in the paper lists it as Whittingham Brothers, in Swan-yard and Whittingham and Wilkie, coach lace factory. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 361.
Joseph Whittingham, 1841, Mercer Street, London. 1841 Post Office Directory.
LONGBOROUGH, LEICESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND
T. Saxby, 1831, lace manufacturer, bankrupt. Law Advertiser for the Year 1831. London, England : J. W. Paget, 1831, page 306.
LUBENHAM, ENGLAND (County of Leicestershire)
Joshua Perkins & Son [also J. Perkins & Son listed as two seperate companies in Kellys’ 1885 Joshua Perkins & Son listed at Payne’s lane, Coventry]started probably about 1840. Perkins began by making black silk plush for hats, but by 1850 he was also a beer retailer, and by 1860 he had become a manufacturer of a curious combination-carriage and livery lace, and ketchup and pickles. “Lubenham”, A History of the County of Leicestshire: Volume 5: Gartre Hundred (1964), pages, 220-229; Many of the inhabitants are employed in weaving carriage and railway lace, Messrs J. Perkins and Sons have a large factory here. Kelly’s Directory for 1888; Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660..
Coward and Wood, 36 Spring Gardens, Manchester.
Calvert, 1823, Peiser, G. M. “Memoir of G. M. Peiser.” Odd Fellows’ Magazine, New Series. January 1839, page 225.
Richard Eadon, 1805, son of William Eadon of York. Sylvia D. Hogarth. Goldlace to Girthwebs–The Evolution of a Trade In York. Textile History. Vol. 28 No. 2 (1997), page 194.
John Faulkner, 1849, coach lace manufacturer, bankrupt. Jurist for the Year 1849. Vol. XIII Part II. London : S. Sweet, 1849, page 117; Law Journal for the Year 1832-1849. England : E. B. Ince, 1849, page 26.
G. M. Peiser, 1823-1839, “I was born in 1802, at Posen, the principality of the Duchy of that name, in Prussian, Poland. I came to England in 1823, and travelling through a great portion of the country, I got employment in my trade of coach-lace weaver, at Mr. Calvert’s, in Manchester. The first wages I received, was £0. 17s. 1Z\xd., for eleven days’ work, (that portion of the wage-book where the entry was made, is at present in my possession.) After working several years as a journeyman-weaver, Mr. Calvert employed me as foreman over the coach-lace and webb weavers, which situation I retained till I commenced business in partnership with Mr. George Heyward, the then treasurer of the Manchester District, and host of the Apollo Lodge. I was initiated in the Apollo Lodge, on the 3rd of September, 1828. For a foreigner, I speak the English language tolerably well. Peiser, G. M. “Memoir of G. M. Peiser.” Odd Fellows’ Magazine, New Series. January 1839, pages 225-229.
Unknown, 1723 livery lace maker. Wilies, Roy McKeen. Freshest Advices Early Provinical Newspaper in England, 1965 page 117.
Unknown, circa 1859, “We lately looked through one of these old mills, and found on the ground floor and in the basement, two machine-making firms; on the first floor up stairs a wood turner and a sewing machine-maker; onf the second floor a braid manufacturer and a coach lace manufacturer. Watts, John. Cotton Famine 1861-1864. London, England : Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1866, page 44.
John A. Ward, 1895, 81 High Street, Manchester.
John Wood, 1895, 61 High Street. 1895 Post Office Directory. *; John A. Wood, 82 Great Bridgewater Street. Kelly’s Directory of the Leather Trades. London, England : Kelly & Co., 1885, page 660.
Richard Dart and Joseph Brown, 1851, Bedford Street, Covert-garden, bankrupt. The Jurist Vol. XIV Part II for 1850. London : S. Sweet, 1851, page 169; The Jurist Vol. XV Part II for 1851. London : S. Sweet, 1852, page 386.
Alfred Vincent Newton, 1852, 66Chancery Lane, in the county of Middlesex, mechanical draughtsman “improvements in machinery for weaving coach lace… Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal. Vol. LII. Edinburgh : Adam Charles Black, 1852, page 370.
John Payne & Co. , 1823, coach lace manufacturers, Great Queen Street, Partership of John Payne and Edward Wood dissolved June 24, 1823. Law Advertiser Vol. 2. London, England : J. W. Pagent, 1824, page 12.
John Edward Hawkins Payne, 1849 of Great Queen Street. Mechanics Magazine, Museum, Register, Journal and Gazette July 7th 1849, page 239. and Henry William Currie, engineer patented a loom for weaving coach lace; Wright, Thomas. Life of John Payne. London : T. F. Unwin, 1919, page 10 plus a portrait of John Edward Hawkins Payne, being famous as the father of John Payne the poet.
Mary Ann Payne and Company, 1842, coach lace manufacturers. Life of John Payne. London : T. F. Unwin, 1919, page
10; Cases Argued and Determined Relating to the Poor Laws...Vol. XII new series Vol. XXI old series. London : E. B. Ince, 1843, page 6.
Robert Payne, 1843, Great Queen Street. Cases Argued and Determined Relating to the Poor Laws...Vol. XII new series Vol. XXI old series. London : E. B. Ince, 1843, page 6.
Payne & Wood 1821, coach lace makers. Hening, Crawford D. Cases On the Law of Suretyship. St. Paul, MN : West Publishing Co., 1911, pages 50-52. Note: Payne & Wood sued Ives, Sargon & Mann for non-payment of coach lace sold to them and shipped to India, and the case became noted in case law; Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of King’s Bench… Vol. 3. London : S. Sweet, 1824, pages 664-669; Sergent, Thomas. Report of Cases Argued and Determined In the English Courts of Common Law. Vol. XVI. Philadelphia, PA : T. & J. W. Johnson, 1869, pages 180-182.
Henry Trobridge, 1843, coach lace weaver. Harford-place, Drury-lane, Middlesex. The Jurist Vol. VII Part II…for the Year 1843. London, England : S. Sweet, 1844, page 467. was a in debtors prison.
William Broadbent, 1851, age 46, Coach Lace Weaver, Clarkes Yard or Square. 1851 Census-Main Listing.
Isaac Cockaday, 1852, St. Andrew’s Hill. Slater’s, Late Pigot & Co….1852, page 78.
Joshua Gooch, 1845, Dove Street. History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Norfolk…Sheffield : William White, 1845, page 181; Slater’s, Late Pigot & Co….1852, page 60.
Thomas Gooch, 1845, Dove Street. History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Norfolk…Sheffield : William White, 1845, page 181.
Richard Priest, 1845-1852, 78 St. Giles’ Street. History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Norfolk…Sheffield : William White, 1845, page 181; Slater’s, Late Pigot & Co….1582, page 65.
William Tany, (also spelled Taney)1845-1852, Timber Hill. History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Norfolk…Sheffield : William White, 1845, page 181; Slater’s, Late Pigot & Co….,1852, page 67.
David Hick, 1837, 51 Wiker. White, William. History, Gazetteer, and Directory, of West-Riding of Yorkshire. Sheffield, England : Robert Leader, 1837, page 133.
Thomas Hield, 1854, 58 Wicker, coach lace maker. Post Office Directory of Sheffield…London, England : Kelly & Co., 1854, page 153.
Richard Duck, 1871-1881, born 1836 London, England, 1871 Orris Weaver & 1881 retired Orris Weaver. Residence in 1871, 32 Neville Street, Lambeth, Surrey, England. http://worldconnect.genealogy.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=guppy&id=I4613 4/7/2007
[Mersey and Harding] From a London paper we glean some interesting facts relative to coach laces, in its early manufacture. Some sixty years back , a great deal of the coach laces, wanted then, were made at Wandsworth, on the banks of the Wandle; just where is enters the Thames, stood a coach lace factory, employing a good many hands and doing a good business in connection with the sale warehouse at Long Acre, in London. Men and girls were employed in making this lace, with suchexcellent reputation, that often a specially designed royal or princely pattern, for home or abroad, was produced in splendid style. Carriage Monthly February 1889. (Believed to be the factory of Samuel Merscy (sometimes spelt Mersey) who lived in Wandsworth from c. 1807 until his death in 1821. His wife, Sarah continued to live in Wandsworth until all the family property in the Wandsworth area was sold in 1828. Sarah died in 1830. The street directories list Mr. Merscy as a coach lace-maker of 71 Long Acre, London (the 1829 London Post Office directory shows the 71 Long Acre business under the two names of Mersey and Harding). Samuel and Sarah were married at St Martins in the Fields on 14th April 1785 and they are buried in the Bunhill Fields burial ground in the City of London. The family lived in a big house on West Hill, Wandsworth and they owned several plots of land in the Wandle Delta area.). From Meredith Davis, Battersea Library, 265 Lavender Hill, London SW11 1JB.
Samuel Merscy, the younger, of Long Acre, in the Parish of St. Martin-in-the Fields, in the County of Middlesex patented on October 3, 1817 an improved method of weaving livery and coach lace British patent number 4156, no drawings found. Merscy, Samuel, the younger.–This is “an improved mode or method of weaving, making, and manufacturing of livery lace and coach lace.” in the description of this invention the patentee says,– the characteristic and essential difference between the old and accustomed mode of weaving livery lace and coach lace and that which I now make use of, and is the subject of the present patent, is, that I bring on a face of tissue wrought with silk, cotton, worsted, or other materials, above or upon the main groundwork, and upon which tissue face the tuft or figure is raised or made to appear in the same manner as it formerly was raised or made to appear upon the lay. This tissue face is woven or produced by tissue shoot being thrown into what I denominate binder threads, which are to be worked in separate series, and each series by separate leases, connected to treadles in the loom in such number and in such manner as the figure of the tissue to appear on the face of my ground may require. No drawings. See Rolls Chapel Reports, 8th report, p. 118. Patents for Inventions : Abridgments of specifications relating to weaving. London : Printed by George E.Eyre and William Spottiswoode, 1861-1883, pages 62-63. also mentioned in Taylor, Charles. The Literary Panorama and National Register. London, England : C. Taylor, 1818, page 1030.
Valuable Premises, extensive stock in trade, machinery, fixtures, and effects, Long-acre–by Messrs. Warlters and Co., on the premises, No. 71, Long-acre, and at Wandsworth, Surrey. This day, December 14, and following days, at 12, under a decree from the Court of Chancery.–The valuable stock of carriage lace bindings and cord of every description, iron engine and weaving looms, wheels, fixtures, &c, of the late firm of Messrs. Merscy and Harding; comprising upwards of 200,000 yards of rich silk and worsted carriage lace and binding, a quantity of unmaufacturred silk, worsted, and cotton, 50 cast-iron engine and plain weaving looms, spinning wheels, various machinery, fixtures, fitting up , furniture and effects. At 12 o’clock on the first day’s sale will be sold the valuable Lease of the Premises, 12 years and half of which are unexpired, at a very low rent, and immediate possession. The premises may be viewed until the sale, the stock and effects two days prior: catalogues had (at 6d. Each) of Mr. Pontifex, solicitor, St. Andrew’s-court. Holborn hill: of Messrs. Potts and Son solicitors, … Times, Wednesday, December 14, 1831; page 4; Issue 14721; col D.
WARWICK, WARWICKSHIRE, ENGLAND.
Alex Webb, 1830, coach lace, fringe, &c., manufacturer, 10 and 11, Carr’s-lane. West, William. History and Directory of Warwickshire. Birmingham, England : R. Wrightson, 1830 page 400.
Eliza C. Spooner, 1891, Carriage Lace Weaver, Warwick, Warwickshire. Warwickshire Ancestors Project–1891.
William Eadon, 1807, Livery Lace Weaver. . From Freemen, City of York, England.
Begs Leave to inform the Nobility, Gentry, and other, that he has purchased the Stock in trade of Mrs. Mary Greenwood, Lace Weaver in Thursday-Market, and purposes to carry on that Business, in all its Brandes, at his House in Swinegate, York where the Public may depend on being well served withall Sorts of Livery and Bed Laces, Shoulder Knots, Tassels, Lines, Fringes, and all Sorts of Trimmings in the Coach, Bed and Saddle Way, also Ladies Trimmings of Different Kinds, in the genteelest Taste, and at the most reasonable Prices. Such as are pleased to favour him with their Orders, may be assured of having them speedily and punctually executed, and gratefully acknowledged, by Their most obedient and Humble Servant WILIIAM EADON. York Courant. January 6, 1778.(William Eadon had been apprenticed to Mary Greenwood, widow and laceweaver in 1770 (City of York Archives, D14) and he registered as a freeman laceweaver in 1779 (City of York Archives, D 2); Sylvia D. Hogarth. Goldlace to Girthwebs–The Evolution of a Trade In York. Textile History. Vol. 28 No. 2 (1997), page 200.
George Ellis & Co., livery lace weaver & saddler’s, ironmongers, Castlegt. Baines’s Yorkshire : A New Printing, 1969, page 83; “George Ellis and Charles Priestley, York, coach lace and livery weaver and girth web manufacturers firm of George Ellis & Co.,–George Ellis deceased debts received and paid by Henry Bland, George Swan, and Robert Eillis, executors. Law Advister, for 1831, page 93; History, Directory & Gazeteer, of the County of York Vol. 2, 1823, page 83.
William Dalton, Silklace Weaver, apprentice to William Eadon, Livery Lace Weaver, free 1807. Freemen, City of York, England.
James Dickinson, livery lace weaver. Registers St. Michael…York, by Yorkshire Archaeological Society, page 219.
Abraham Firth, livery lace weaver. Registers St. Michael…York, by Yorkshire Archaeological Society, page 219.
Mary and James Greenwood, (Mother and Brother of the late Paul Greenwood, Lace and Fringe-Weaver in Thursday Market, York, deceas’d). Take this Method of returning thanks to their Friends for their past Favours, and to acquaint them and the Public, that the Business will be carried on by the same Hands, with the Addition of a compleat Workman lately come from London, as heretofore, and a Continuance of the Favours of their Friends will be gratefully acknowledged. York Courant June 27, 1769.
Edward Henwood, 1831, coach-lace and livery lace weaver. Law Advertiser. published 1831, page 358.
Thomas Smith, 1872, coach lace weaver, 1 Charlton’s buildings, Regent Street. Directory of the City of York and Neighbourhood. York, England : Johnson & Tesseyman, 1872, page 255.
Robert Stabler, 1843, livery lace and fringe manufacturer, East-parade, Henworth, near Yorkshire. Baines’s Yorkshire : A New Printing, 1969, page 83, 100; Jurist, 1843, page 478 for meeting.
Other Weavers of York, For more information on Livery Lace weavers of York there is an article by–Sylvia D. Hogarth. Goldlace to Girthwebs–The Evolution of a Trade In York. Textile History. Vol. 28 No. 2 (1997), pages 185-200. It traces the history of silklace weavers starting in 1430 with Katherine Burton. Other weavers mentioned in the article are Agnes Setter, 1435; Elena Arnald, 1453; De Alicia Okeburn, silkwoman, 1476; William Lynthuayte, 1500; James Whyte, 1560; Edward Pynder, 1580/1 & 1596/7 & 1612; John Bethome, 1574; Edward Pinder, 1581; Edward Hayton, 1584; William Clay, 1593; Thomas Nailer, 1610; John Blanchard, 1576 & 1618; Matthew Chapman, 1628; John Harland, 1636; Thomas Sproston, 1665; Thomas Steile, 1671 & 1677; John Fox father of Joseph Fox freeman silkweaver, 1673; Thomas Fox, 1674-1675; James Joliffe, 1677/8 & 1687; William Johnson, 1671; John Harland, 1721/22; Joseph Beckett, 1721; Paul Greenwood, 1769; Edward Plumpton, 1742 &1769; Mary Greenwood, 1769; James Greenwood, 1769; William Prince, 1778; William Eadon, 1778; Thomas Harrison, 1785; Thomas Smith, 1785; Richard Woof, 1789; William Eadon, 1789; Elias Wolstenholme, 1817; George Ellis, 1821-1825; Robert Ellis, 1821-1828; Ellis and Henwood, 830, 25 Castlegate; Ellis and Simpson, 1830, 15 Spurriergate; Robert Stabler, 1830, livery lace manufacturer 18 Monkgate; Elias Thomas Wolstenholme, 1830, fringe manufacturer 4, Bootham; Robert Ellis and Son, 1860, of 25 Castlegate; Robert Stabler jnr, 1860/1861, Coach Lace and Fringe Manufacturer East Parade, Heworth Moor; John Thompson, 1860, Girthweb Manufacturer of 150 Walmgate; Mrs. Ann Wolstenholme, 1860, Fringe warehouse at 4 Bootham; John Thompson, 1908.
Thomas Holmes, livery lace manufacture, Coffee Yard, Stonegate. Baines’s Yorkshire : A New Printing, 1969, page 88.
Boyriven Freres, Etoffes pour Voitures; Bureau: 37, Rue Le Peletier, Paris: Fabrique de Galons et Passementeries, Neuilly: Favique de Reps et Taffetas, Lyon..
The warehouse of the firm in the city was a No. 37 Rue le Peletier, where they have an immense stock of laces, silks, and carriage cloths. The largest of their lace factories is situated in Neullu, just outside of the city walls, to the west of Paris. The factory is built on three sides of a hollow square, covering and area of about one acre; and it is divided into separate departments for the different operations employed, included-besides the office and stock-rooms for dyeing the silk, drying it, winding upon bobbins, and there are also separate buildings for the hand and machine-looms.
The hand-looms are fifteen in number, and are used only in cases where an order is given for a small quantity of some special variety not kept in stock; or where the lace is required with the quickest possible dispatch, and the preparation of a power loom would cause a delay. Previous to 1860, the firm made all their laces by hand, in the ordinary manner, but being convinced of the practicability of using steam-power for the purpose, they gave much attention to the perfecting of a machine adapted for this, and after five years of research, they finally, in 1865, invented and patented the power loom. The full number of employees in the Neuilly factory is one hundred and fifty, of whom the majority are women and girls. Besides this factory, the firm had another factory for the same purpose, which was situated some miles further out of Paris, and where another force of eighty operatives is employed. Hub. Vol. 16 No. 1 (April 1874), pages 10-11.
Cagnet,1867, “the carriage and livery lace of Cagnet are teh best of their class.” Report On The Paris Universal Exhibition 1867, Vol. III. London : George E. Eyre & William Spottiswoode, 1868, page 122.
Devenne Freres – 5 Rue Joquelet, Paris. The business of this firm is devoted mainly to silks and cloths, of which they have an admirable supply for coach-builders. They also manufacture coach laces, all hand-made. Hub. Vol. 16 No. 1 (April 1874), pages 10-11.
Guillemot Brothers, Meulan (Seine and Oise)–Manufacturers. Depot, 88 Rue Neure des Mathurins, Paris.
Specimens of coach and livery lace.Robert Ellis.Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue. London : Great Britain Commissioners for the Exhibition of 1851, 1851, page 1188. and Official Catalogue of the New York Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations. 1853, page 151.
L. Hendrickx – 31 Rue du Jour, Paris. His factory also is in Paris. His laces are manufactured by hand only, are expensive, but of the very finest quality. Hub. Vol. 16 No. 1(April 1874), pages 10-11.
Neveu and Guichard – office, Rue St. Denis, ancien 319. These are probably the largest manufactures of laces in France, and their business is confined to this branch alone. They employ six hundred operatives, in connection with steam, and Power-looms. Their factory is near St. Etienne. Hub. Vol. 16 No. 1(April 1874), pages 10-11.
Cassel or Kassel,GERMANY
Scharf, 1867, “In Prussia is some well-shaded carriage lace by Scharf.”Report On The Paris Universal Exhibition 1867, Vol. III. London : George E. Eyre & William Spottiswoode, 1868, page 122.
Fritz Oberlinger. Catalog titled–Das Posamentier-Kunstegewerbe im 19. Jahrhundert in 40 Tafeln . Bearb, published in 1926. Catalog located at the New York Public Library shows photographs of samples of coach lace.
Nathaniel Creed, 1800, Owenstown, and of Great Ship Street, Dublin, was born 1750 married Rebecca Donolan.Parish of Taney: A History of Dundrum, Near Dublin. 1895, page 104.
Rebecca Creed, 15 Dame Street, Army & Livery Lace Manufacture. Dublin City, Ireland Wilson’s Directory 1820.The late Mr. Nathaniel Creed’s Army and Livery Lace-manufactory, 15, Dame-street, Dublin, to be dispensed of, with all the looms and apparatus for the business, and with the great advantage of having them in a house at the rear of the premises, in Dame-street: it is seldom such an opportunity offers of getting into a sure and safe line of business, which has been established above 40 years[established 1780]: it combines also every thing in the fancy fringes and furniture line: time will be given for half of the purchase money. Apply to Mrs. Creed as above. The stock on hand will be disposed of on advantageous terms. Times June 13, 1820, page 1, issue 10958, col. A.
[Fry and Company], [est. circa 1779], at the same time the Wandsworth factory was flourishing, sixty years ago , there was also a coach lace factory in Dublin, Ireland, which was established over fifty years before the Wandsworth factory, and is still carrying on business, and, strange to say, by the descendants of those commencing the business. The factory was first on Nicholas street, moved to Dame street, thence to Thevin Street and the last move to Cork street, where they are at the present time, with such a reputation that they are known all over the world, and many of the best made carriages are trimmed with Irish lace. The late novelties are the silk plush linings, silk imitation of Moroccos, silk taburets for head linings and specially fine texture carpet for fine carriages. Carriage Monthly. Vol. 24 No. 11 (February 1889).
Fry and Company – carriage lace and trimming manufacturers, of Dublin, Ireland, are experiencing excellent trade, so much so that they are enlarging their premises to meet the increasing demand for their wares. The firm employ 250 hands, of whom 180, are females and these include about 60 first-class weavers. Hub. Vol. 28 No. 11 (February, 1887).
In 1884 Thomas Fry of Dublin, Ireland voiced his sentiments about tariffs and duty free goods. In his speech before the British Carriage Manufactures.”The first axiom I will state is, if a certain trade or manufacture dies out in a country, it is almost impossible to revive it. Take, for example, the plush and black silk velvet trades. Years ago, London and Dublin were celebrated for their velvets, the manufacture of which gave large employment; now, not a single piece of black silk velvet is made in Dublin, and very little in London, the trade having entirely gone to France. The miles of Utrecht velvet, with which furniture is covered, also come from the Continent. This, I believe, has partly been caused by allowing these articles to come in duty free, and the low rate of wages paid on the Continent.
This I only regret as a manufacture lost to the country, which would be very hard to revive now. But what I do complain of is, the want of reciprocity; for example, in the very article of coach lace, or even carriages, the foreign manufacture is allowed into this country duty free, an we have to pay a very high duty when sending them to France or America, which decidedly gives the foreign manufacturer an advantage, as he can make a fair profit out of his own trade and cut his export very low, so as to do a large business. As we all know, the larger the trade is (if properly conducted), the cheaper is the rate at which we can work.
I am not a politician, and this is not the place or occasion to discuss the question of free trade. But I think it would be well for this Institute to consider the subject, and after we get the Chancellor of the Exchequer to abolish the carriage tax, we may get him to hear our voice when future commercial treaties are being negotiated. Thomas Fry, “The Manufacture of Carriage Lace and Trimming,” Paper read before the Institute of British Carriage Manufactures, Tuesday, January 15, 1884. page 40; Saddlers, Harness Makers, Carriage Builders’ Gazette. Vol. 14-15 (1884-1885), page 15.
William Fry & Co., 1873, 31 Westmoreland Street, coach lace and fringe silk for carriage linings. London International Exhibition of 1873 : Official Catalogue, London, England : J. M. Johnson & Sons, 1873, page 157.
“List of Donations to the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art, from the 31st January to the 31st December 1866. 39 specimens illustrating the manufacture of poplins, tabinets, coach lace. Thirteenth Report of the Science and Art Department of the Committee of Council of Education. London : George E. Eyre &William Spottiswoode, 1866, page 255..
William Gibbons, 1772, livery lace weaver. Hughes, S. C. Church of S. John the Evangelist, Dublin. Dublin : Hodges, Figgis & Co., 1889, page 127.
Christopher Hearne, 1772, livery lace weaver. Hughes, S. C. Church of S. John the Evangelist, Dublin. Dublin : Hodges, Figgis & Co., 1889, page 127.
Thomas Lagrayiere, livery lace manufacturer; in Stephen Street. Obituary. Londonderry Journal; Saturday, June 13, 1772.
Nicholas, 1850, Livery lace weaver, 19 Lower Kevin Street, Dublin. Dublin City Directory 1850.
W. Alkinson & Co., 1820, Livery Lace & Fringe Manufacturer. 14 Werburgh Street. Dublin City, Ireland Wilson’s Directory 1820.
J. Bowie, 1758. Award by the Edinburgh Society for a piece of livery lace done to perfection. Palliser, Bury. A History of Lace. Edinburgh, Scotland : Sampson Low, Son, and Marston, 1869, page 374.
Patrick Bowie, 1734, 24, 40, 71. Orris and livery lace makers. Register of Apprentices of the City of Edinburgh.
W. Bowie, 1758. Award by the Edinburgh Society for a piece of gold and silver lace. 2 quineas. Palliser, Bury. A History of Lace. Edinburgh, Scotland : Sampson Low, Son, and Marston, 1869, page 374.
Adam Burns, (also spelled Burr & Burn)1839-1842, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Coach lace Manufacturer. National Archives of Scotland NAS catalogue. Jurist in the trail of Stirling. Swackhamer, Conrad. United States Democratic Review. New York, NY : J. & H. G. Langley, 1852, page 118; Stirling Peerage: Trial of Alexander Humphrys or Alexander. Edinburgh : William Blackwood & Sons, 1839, page 42.
Joseph Gall, 1770, s. of William, servant to Mrs. Hamilton of Pencaitland [Scotland} to Patrick Bowie, Orris and livery lace maker, for 8 years 27, Feb. 1770. Register of Apprentices of the City of Edinburgh.
J. and J. Greig. 1866, Greenside Row. “List of Donations to the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art, from the 31st January to the 31st December 1866. 23 specimens illustrating the manufacture of carriage lace. Thirteenth Report of the Science and Art Department of the Committee of Council of Education. London : George E. Eyre &William Spottiswoode, 1866, page 256.
William Henderson, 1777, s. of John, brewer, to Charles McLagan, Orris and livery lace maker, for 5 years 16 April, 1777. Register of Apprentices of the City of Edinburgh.
Peter McEwan, s. of Alexander, workman, to Patrick Bowie, Orris and livery lace maker, for 7 years 7 September 1763. Register of Apprentices of the City of Edinburgh.
Charles McLagan,1771, 29, 65. Orris and livery lace makers. Register of Apprentices of the City of Edinburgh.
Moses Palmer, 1865, coach lace manufacturer, Canongate Ward. Marwick, James D. Sketch of the History of the High Constables of Edinburgh…Edinburgh : privately, 1865, page ixxiii.
Archibald Taylor, 1774, s. of John, weaver to Charles McLagan, Orris and Livery lace maker, for 7 years 21, December 1774. Register of Apprentices of the City of Edinburgh.
James Wightman, 1770, s. of William, stabler, to Patrick Bowie, Orris and livery Lace maker, for 7 years 27, February 1770. Register of Apprentices of the City of Edinburgh.
Archibald Leitch & Co., 1850, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Coach & livery lace Manufacturers 1850. National Archives of Scotland NAS catalogue; Jurist Vol. XIV Part II. ..for 1850, pub 1851, page 42 for Scotch Sequestrations.